«МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЙ ИНСТИТУТ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОАЗИАТСКИХ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЙ КАЗАХСТАНСКОЕ АРХЕОЛОГИЧЕСКОЕ ОБЩЕСТВО К.М. БАЙПАКОВ ИСЛАМСКАЯ АРХЕОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ АРХИТЕКТУРА И АРХЕОЛОГИЯ КАЗАХСТАНА ...»
The Aabs eached the Aal egion: u to Bachikend (Bachinket) and Djend. He consides, that Islamization of the South Kazakhstan was stated in the VIII c. and that it was accomanied by the geat destoys, building of fotesses and mosques, channels and walls aound the town on the base of data of genealogy and achaeological22.
Not eveything is so simle in the oblems of chonology of fies on the sites Kuiuktobe, Madan-Kuik, thei connection with the Aab conquests. The date of fie on citadel Kuiuktobe can be connected suely with ealy IX c., thanks to the events descibed in the witten souces. Concetely they ae evidences of at-Tabai taken by them fom the woks of Abu-l-Whid Muhammad Azaki “Chonicle of Mekka town”, in the comments to the inscition of tohies of al-Malik cown and thone ket in the teasue of Kaaba. AlAzaki infoms that al-Mamuna (goveno-geneal of Khoosan in 809-818 yy.) befoe the stat of wa with Khalif al-Amin told to his vizie al-Fadle ibn Sahl about difficult situation in Khoosan and Maveannah “we have to fight (against al-Amin) afte decline and evolt… afte the efusal of djabgy to obey, wiles of khakan, owne of Tibet.., when the Tsa of Otabend efused to ay the tax, which was aid usually by him”. Thee is also continuation of this stoy, connected with the unitive ti: “fom the egion Tabad (al-Fadl) sent that thing, which was demanded fom Faab and Shavga. And he tied to ossess the egion of Ota; he uled like the chief of bodeing egion and took the sons of the Kaluk djabgy with his wives isones”23.
Aaently, it is necessay to connect the fie in citadel of Kuiuktobe with this ti, dating it consequently by ealy IX c. (the fist two tens of yeas)24.
But late, “in 859 y. thee was one moe ti to Shavga and it was done by the Samanidian Nuh b. Asad. Duing his ti seveal thousands of eole of killed”25.
Nuh Asad could not any way to ass Faab and Ota oasis. The fie on citadel Kuiuktobe take lease at that time? This fact cannot be excluded.
So it is not ossible to date eciously and simly the fie on citadel Kuiuktobe, because, fo the fist tun, the set of ceamics fom the laye of fie is dated by the VII – ealy IX c.26 The coins do not give the ecise date, which wee in use till the X c.27 So the date of fie offeed by E.A.Smagulov, like the middle of the VIII c. cannot be adoted like the unconditional one. But obability of tis of the Aabs to Ota and Cental Asia in the fist hay of the VIII c. is not excluded. Moeove, al-Azaki himself told about the tibute aid by the tsa Otabend, what means that he was subdued to the Aabs fo befoe the unitive ti of al-Fadle ibn Sahl.
Chapter I V.V.Batold wites also, making efeence to at-Tabai, that in the yeas of govening of Nas b. Saya (738-748 yy.) in Khoosan, who was at his time the associate of Kuteiba of Kuteiba, thee was estoed the Aab dominion in Sydaia Rive basin28. What is concening the oint of view of M.Kozha that in the VIII c. Saiam became the cente of fight fo belief, “it is doubtful, the same as conquest of by the Aabs of Bachikend and Djend, which did not exist at that time unde that names”. Of couse, it is incedibly, that the Aabs built channels and long walls aound the conqueed in the VIII c. towns.
It is necessay to note also, that the evidences of “Nasib-Name” contadict often to the data of othe souces on histoy of islamization of Cental Asia and demand the citical analyses, what was noted by V.V.Batold29.
And if the tis of the Aabs took lace in the VIII c.
Only in the late VIII c. mostly was finished the ocess of Islamization of Cental Asia, and the local nobility flushed with the Aab nobility. In Bagdad aeaed the whole quates, settled by waios fom Khoesm, Sogd, Fegana, the Tukic ossessions in Semiechiee and Sydaia: “Stating in the naow cicle of cultue of the feudal to, the ocess of unification conqueed moe and moe wide shee… The numeous tade tis, tis of scientists in “seach of knowledge” widened the mental outlook of eole and omoted the tansfeence of handicaft, science and at. The mean of communication fo intimacy was the Aab language, but aleady like the facto of cultue, science and eligion”31.
B.G.Gafuov noted, that the “Moslem is the esult synthesis of the ceative achievements of many eole, including the centalization ones… So fom the oint of view of histoical esective, inclusion of Cental Asia into Khalifat omoted, finally, the wide develoment of contacts between diffeent eole, on the base of which haened all-embacing cultual synthesis in Cental Asia and in all nea East in the IX–X cc.”32.
This ocess got the name “Moslem Renaissance”33.
By the oint of view of academician N.I.Konad, “Revival is the ocess chaacteistic not only fo Euoe, but esenting itself “exession of geneal aoiateness of the histoical ocess”, which aeas obligatoy in the definite moment of the histoical develoment of eole “with long, continuously develoing and which is being continued in cuent times the histoical life and cultue”34.
It is doubtless, that the ocesses, connected with innovations of the Moslem eiod, took eace in Kazakhstan too, the same as thee took lace also the Moslem Renaissance. The South of Kazakhstan and Jetysu, will not been conqueed by the Aabs35, but that economical and cultual develoment in the one way was defined by the histoical situation in CentalAsian-Kazakhstan egion.
That event had the imotant meaning, as the victoy of the Aabs defined the Moslem vecto in develoment of Cental Asia and Kazakhstan.
In 751 y. Zyad b. Salih boke the Chinese ti unde leadeshi of Gao Syan Chzhi in Atlakh battle not fa fom Taaz36.
Arabs in South Kazakhstan and Jetysu, spread of Islam on the territory of Kazakhstan The souces, telling about the events of the late VIII–IX c., ae the evidences of islamization of oulation of the South Kazakhstan and Semiechie. In 840 y. the Samanidian Nuh ibn Asad conqueed37. In 859 y., as it is noted above, his bothe Akhmed ibn Asad made the ti to Shavga38.
Kaluks, who conqueed since 766 y. the olitical ule in Semiechie and in the South of Kazakhstan, wee mostly influenced by the Moslem cultue. Thee the view, that they adoted Islam unde Khalif Makhdi (775-785 yy.). But aaently, it efes only to same at of them, as in 893 y. Ismail ibn Akhmad conqueed Taaz and “tansfeed the main chuch of that town in to the mosque”39.
V.V.Batold noted in his wok the chonology of involving of the Tuks into the shee of a new eligion. In accodance to it, acquaintance of the Tuks with Islam was staed in the VII–VIII cc. and in the eoch of Samanidians took lace the eal successful convesion of Tuks to Islam.
But the mass islamization of Tuks the scientists connected with 960 y., when by infomation of ibn al-Asi, took lace the fact of mass adotion of Islam by Tukic nomads in amount defined like 200 thousand tents, but the ecise lacement of that tibes and ethic attibution ae not know exactly. Analyzing this fact, V.V.Batold suosed, that event haened move obviously in Kaakhanid Khaganate in Semiechie (Jetysu). In the ealy X c.
Islam was adoted by the ancesto of Satuk dynasty of Kaakhanidians, and his son Bogakhan Khaun b. Musa in 960 y. announced Islam, like the State eligion40.
Fo the fist tun Moslem eligion was sead in towns. In witten souces thee ae evidences of ocess of islamization of citizens. So, ibn Khodadbekh infoms on the toos of Moslems in the main town of egion Faab Kede41. Ibn Khaukal wites about Syutkent town situated on the left bank of Sydaia, on the bode with Shash: “thee is mosque whee meet togethe the Tuks fom diffeent tibes of Guses and Kaluks, who aleady adoted Islam42. The main town of the South Kazakhstan was “the lace of wa fo belief”43. Makhdisi, enumeating big town of Isidjab egion as the obligatoy comonent of constuction, calls the mosque44.
Gadually, the new eligion was being sead among then nomads; the same Ibn Khaukal infoms on the Tuks – Moslems, who migated between Faab, Kendjida and Shash45.
What concening esonalities, names it is obably thee was aticiation on to the events of some scientist – Ianian fom Bukhaa Abu-l-Khasan Muhammed b. Sufian adKelimati; who seved to Kaakhanidians khan and who died unde his yad in 960 y. Among othe eesentatives of Islam, acting among Tuks was Abu-l-Khasan Sa’id b Khatim alUsbanikat, who “went to the county of Tuks ealie than 990 y.”. Also V.V.Batold ays attention to the Samanidian tsa Nas b. Nukh who the fist half of the X c. went to the Tuks of Kashga and who took at in islamization of Tuks of Kaakhanidian Khanate.
He evaluated islamization of Kaakhanidian Tuks as the ogessive fact fo thei histoy, who defined also the chaacte of thei conquest of Maveannah like eaceful and not destuctive46.
At the same time scientist evaluated the eiod of ule of Kaakhanidas in the histoy of Cental Asia egion between two ives (afte the geat Samanidian eoch) in some laces like the atial egess and anothe ats he suosed, that change of dynasties and Tukisation did not influence essentially to the cultual life of egion and that “thee was beak in the cultual develoment”. V.V.Batold was the fist, who aid attention to the legends about Satuk Boga khan and who ut fowad his vesion on islamization of Kaakhanidian state.
The inteesting is his evaluation of the oem of Yusuf Balasaguni “Kutatgu Bilik”, which, Chapter I by his wods, is comletely “Filled by the siit of Islam” and gives the evidences of Islam chaacte of Kaakhanidian cultue.
His eots on econditions of islamization ae valuable today. This is ecognition of the wold and in geneal ethic eligions, like the most high level of the eligions and mental develoment of human mind, the souce of valuable civilization establishment of the fact of siitual decline of many eligions, sueioity of young Islam; on the tade outes and Moslem education, as the imotant facto of the siitual oaganda; on the chaacte and eculiaities of the wold ocesses, islamization of Tuks, ole of Sufian Odes.
V.V.Batold consideed, that is the XIII c., in afte Mongol time wee continued islamization and at the same time Tukization of Tukestan. The time of final establishment of Islam among the Tuks of Cental Asia V.V.Batold consideed the eoch of the Golden Hode – XIV c. “So, we can say, that thanks to the Mongol Emie the victoy of Islam was solved finally, and aleady in the XIV centuy Islam was the stale eligion on all sace, conqueed by Mongols, fom the South Russia u to the bodes of Mongolia and China”47.
Thee ae many wondeful stoies on the victoy of Islam. So, in the stoy about adotion of Islam by Uzbek-khan it is noted, that only one esence of Moslem nea him condemned to failue the wonde-woking, stength of agan magicians close to him. To confim the geat invulneability of Moslem it was offeed to one of agan magicians and holy BabaTuklas (Baba-Takty-Shashty Azis) to ente the buning – not oven (tanu). The faithless magician was taken u at the same time and Baba-Tuklas went out fom tanu safe. When all eole headed by khan had seen it, they clutched at the hems of sheikhs and “became [all] the Moslems”48.
Sead of Islam in Kazakhstan is connected essentially with Sufism (Moslem mysticism).
Closeness of some ideas and elements of Sufism taditions to the local e Islam believes and cults let Sufism to conque the oulaity among the wide layes of oulation.
The most famous among the essential sufist Odes, aeaed at the Cental Asian soil wee thee ones, like iasavia, kubavia, nakshbandia. The wide know was Ode iasavia (sultania) – on of the banches of nakshbandia congegation, connected with the name Khodja Akhmed Yassawi (XII c.), who is consideed like the founde of the Tukis tadition of the Moslem mysticism.
“The Moslems ones wee also all state fomation of the following time, like Khanates Kymskoe, Kazanskoe and Astakhanskoe in the South Russia, khanates Kazatskoe, Uzbekskoe and othe in Cental Asia. Islam had established so fimly, that it could be sead in cuent Kigiz (o Kazakh) stees not only fom the South, but fom the Noth too”49.
By the ed line though all woks of V.V.Batold is going the idea on the main ole of ealy Islam, as the eligion and civilization in the histoy of Cental Asia, the same as in the othe egions of the East.
Public Constructions of Islamic Architecture:
Mosques, Minarets, Khanaka and Medrese T he change in the siitual and mateial cultue haened with the establishment of Islam.
The view of medieval town and suounding teitoy had been changed. Dominants of constuction became the mosques with minaets: estate, Cathedal, Fest (subub) medese, khanaka, mausoleums, Moslem necoolis with mausoleums.
Mosques and minarets Islam, like the eligious study, wold outlook and way of life in the South Kazakhstan gained a victoy in the second half of the VIII–IX c. the Mosques became the imotant detail of town constuction. Building of the mosques was also the guaantee of osthumous felicity. It is witten about the above in the XV c. with efeence to the famous khadis by the Chonicle wite of Timu’s ti Gyiasaddin Ali; “Who built the Mosque fo Allah even like the nest fo kata bid, Allah ceates house on heaven fo him”50.
Cental Asian Mosques ae divided tyologically fom the oint of functional view fo seveal gous.
Friday (“djuma”) mosques ae called also the Cathedal ones. Thee ae town mosques fo mass Fiday ublic woshis. One Fiday mosque was suosed in town. Common but not obligatoy detail of mosques is minaet-towe, which was built nea outwad fence o built into one of the cones of mosques. Quate mosques wee the eligions and ublic centes of dwelling blocks in town and settlements. The festal mosques wee called “namazga”, “mussala” (lace of ay) “idgah ait” (lace of fest). Woshis took lace duing such fests, like Kuban and Fit. Poulation of towns and suounding settlements met in the mosque fo woshi in the days of the imotant Islam fest. The lace fo mosques-namazga was chosen out of town o in its bode and the mosque itself looked like a small constuction, fenced squae with mikhab, diected to kiblah. Sometimes mikhab was situated in the wall of yad.
Funeral mosques wee being built nea the woshied buials o at the cemeteies.
And the fallowing tadition of Shai at was following stictly in Cental Asia and Kazakhstan in accodance with which it was fobidden to ay on the buial o in the emise with buial.
Chapter II “Geeting” was suosed fo the humoed gavestone, but not the ay and the imotant diffeence between these two actions was undelined, that those, who made geetings stood by his back to mikhab of the funeal mosque and he ayed by his face to mikhab.
Usually the funeal mosque was being built nea the honoed buial, which by Islam tadition and law was made unde the oen sky; sometimes eveything was done in oosite way – the honoed man was buied in the font of the mosque’s theshold, which layed also the function of funeal one. In the XI–XII cc. above such woshied buials wee being built the monument emises, coming close, to the mosque and connected with it. That constuction ut the beginning to tomb mausoleums, which consist of mausoleum itself – “gukhans” and the funeal mosque – “ziaatkhana”, emises fo ay. Futhe the both emises wee being built at one time. In the XI–XII cc. foming of this tye of buildings was being stated51.
Akyrtas Mosque. In not finished alace constuction made of stone, situated in 40 km to the East of Taaz one of fou blocks (Noth-West) has non finished section in sizes 2727,75 m.
The eseaches caied out on Akytas in 1996 led to conside not finished constuction as the mosque. The above is oved by the esence of low at of mikhab in the west wall, thee tambou asses in the South wall and esence on time “floo” of seveal ocessed stone blocks – base fo column fo the oof of constuction. So, the mosque was lanned like “illa” o “multi-column”. This is one of the tyes of mosques. The time of constuction of Akytas alace is the second half of the VIII c.52 Balasagun Mosque (Burana site)53. In the comlex of hills of the Noth-West Shakhistan of Buan site the mosque was discoveed. This is on-chambe ectangula in lan constuction made of bunt bick with the seaated otal fom the East side. Its side along outwad eimete of wall’s 16,314 m; bick walls emained on 2-mete height; they had taeze shaed inne niches in axes.
It is established, that comlex suvived fou building eiods. The mosque was built on the eve of the X–XI cc. Potal was decoated by caved small bicks in combination with figues laye of bick and caved ganch. In the second building eiod, on the eve of the XI–XII cc. it’s foming included the achitectual teacotta, analogies to the monuments of Maveannah of the same eiod.
The thid and the fouth eiods in life of building ae connected with eais, ebbling of the yad aound, building of the buial vaults. As the esult in Mongol time the Mosque became like deended into the cultual laye and it is tansfeed into maza. In its Noth bode was established the monuments unde it was the buial, mostly childen buials.
Pobably, some outwad dange – the conquest of Balasagun by Mongols, made the Moslem Sufi’s Society of town to bing to the mosque – mausoleum the local “sanctuaies” – kaiaks with Aabs texts of eitahs laid on the buials of wide guistan, fomed by that time aound the minaet and mausoleums54.
Balasagun minaret (Burana site). The Mosque of comlex has not been emained.
Undegound at of minaet it the latfom fomed of stone and bunt bicks. Platfom is situated in the it in deth 5,6 m and sizes in 12,312,3 m. Cylindical column which emoved on height 22 m was ut on to the octahedon cockle Its ue at has not been emained. Entance to minaet is situated on height 5 m and it was done by the stais fom the oof of mosque.
Minaet was built of bunt bicks and it was decoated by the belts figues caved bicks.
Buana minaet was built in the X c.55 Public Constructions of Islam Architecture Aktobe site minaret was discoveed in 50 m to the West of cental uins.
Duing excavations of minaet wee cleaned out the base of towe (stylobat) and the emains of cockle (ue) at. Constuction was made of bunt bicks, accuately ut close to each othe; the seams ae filled by ealy.
The squae of the ectangula towe base is 8,658,5 m. The walls of minaet wee fomed of bunt bicks, and fo inne at of towe wee used the bicks of defeent sizes (22114,5 cm; 31-3213,5-145 cm). In ue at excavation among the uins wee discoveed the ieces of secial bicks and bicks with adonments.
Minaet itself, obably, was octahedon, diamete of its cockle is 7,85 m. The emained height of constuction togethe with deended into the eath column is 3,6 m.
Minaet was built in the XI–XII cc.56 Mosque in Taraz. It is situated nea the mausoleum of Kaakhan. Excavations established, that the mosque in lan is quadangula with the sides, but outwad sides 2020 m and inne hall in sizes 14,614,15 m. Inside the mosque ae 4 ows of the emained stone bases fo columns, 4 fo each ow. The coss ste between the axes is 2,75 m, in longitudinal diection it is 3,5 m. Between stone bases situated in font of the entance, ste of columns is 3,8 m. Stone bases diffeent fom and sizes, but by the height thee ae almost equal 0,4m.
The Mosque is diected by the sides of Univese.
The hills of mosque ae built of ahsa blocks and aw bicks by technics of the combined layes. Thickness of the emained walls is diffeent: Noth (hased) – 3,1 m, East – 2,5 m West – 1,8 m and South wall – 2 m. Raw bicks ae of two inds: ectangula (4522,59 cm) and quadangula (262610 cm). Inne vetical sufaces of walls wee coveed by the ectangula aw bicks. Such constuction was evealed in the Noth South and East walls.
What is concening the West wall, it was econstucted essentially. The base of walls emained on the height u to 0,5 m. The biggest at of wall was coveed by lates in the West wall at the base was cleaned out the niche of mikhab.
To the walls fom inside wee built bick otubeances in a fom of cone double ylons, situated inside the emises equal distance fom cones. In lan they ae situated symmetically to the oosite sides. The bunt bicks has the sizes has the sizes 61324,5 cm.
Wall suots in a fom of ylons, semi columns ae intended to educe not connected wall with stable famewok. We can suose that they layed the function of the additional suot fo oof. The nothen wall is hased. Entance in situated not by the cente, but it is declined to the Noth-West. Width of entance is 1,77 m. Entance is seaated by two otubeance ylons fom, the side of ebbled by stone lates steet in width 2 m.
The taces of constuction in a fom of deeening fo the base fo doo details wee evealed in the entance aetue on the both sides.
Taaz mosque is dated by the IX–XII c.57 Ornek site Mosque (Kulshub town). This monument is situated in 40 km to the East of Taaz, on the oute of the Geat Silk Road. Excavation in cental at of site evealed atially the ectangula in lan constuction in sizes 4020 m. The bases of walls wee built of stone cobble-stones. The walls width 1 m and they wee made of clay. Entance to the mosque was situated in the noth-easten wall and it was fomed by two otubeances of walls in length 3,5 m, foming the tambou. In font of the entance was situated the mikhab wall. On the seaate cleaned sections of floo wee discoveed by caved onament, the othes wee big, not ocessed bouldes. The fist bases in the sizes 0,50,51 m has slightly ounded low at and it is decoated on one side by caved onament. The figue in a fom of vase’s Chapter II leg is shown by double line, wee ictued the leaf with two tendils, going fom gaft. The second base 1,11,25 m and 0,751 m on to, in height 1,2 m. In the ue at thee was otubeance in height 10 cm. Fom two ibbons of block wee taken of flat fascs. On two edges wee cut the ictues of anthoomohous ceations. The thid base was in a fom of two ste block with sizes of low ste 1,31,21 m the ue ste – 0,850,90,4 m. The est bases wee big stone, flattened on to, in sizes famed by 0,80,8 m Columns wee installed by ight ows of distance 3-3,5 m fom each othe. And 11 ones wee installed by length and 5 o 6 by width. Judging by lanning it was the ectangula constuction with it was the ectangula constuction with flat ovelaing ut on a big amount of columns. The mosque is dated by the X–XII cc.58 Kuiruktobe site Mosque (Keder town). Kede town is identified with the site Kuiuktobe in Ota egion59. It is one of the lagest sites, on the teitoy of which since 1971 ae being caied out excavations by the South Kazakhstan comlex achaeological exedition. In the cente of town on the teitoy of Shakhistan was oened the mosque, on which wote al-Makhdisi: “Kede was the new town; establishment of minba (Cathedal mosque) thee was the eason of local was60.
Safety of the Mosque is bad, its walls made of bunt bicks, afte decline of town in afte Mongol time wee taken off by bicks fo building of the numeous buials nea the Mosque.
It was the ectangula constuction in sizes 36,520,5 m by outwad cicle of walls and it was olonged by the line South-West-Noth-East.
Two eiods ae defined in functioning of the Mosque. The ealy constuction efeed to the late IX – ealy X c. was ebuilt in the X c. and it functioned till the XII c., afte what it was destoyed and it was tansfeed into the cemetey. The bicks fo buial vaults wee taken fom the walls of Mosque, so its safety is bad, but the main aametes of mosque ae deigned estoed. The walls ae ut by the technic of combined lying of built and aw bicks.
Kuiuktobe mosque is efeed to the tye of illa o column constuction. The simila mosque was discoveed on Saol-tea in Uzbekistan, which is dated by the XII c. Among the last constuctions of this tye ae close to it juma-mosques of the XVIII c. in Khiva and Khazaas the mosques of ealy XX c. in Ugench61.
Antonovskoe site (Kayalyk town) mosque. Kayalyk town, being in the XI–XII c. the caital of Kaluk ossession in the content of the state of Kaakhanides and the big town of Chagataid Ulus, is identified with Antonovka site, situated on the East bode of Antonovka village (Antonovskoe) now Koilyk62.
Excavations on the site wee stated in 1964, and in 1998 they wee stated again in wide scales and ae being continued again in wide scales and wee being continued till now. Duing excavation was discoveed the constuction of town, the Buddhist temle;
constuctions connected by the eseaches with Manichean temles; the mosques, khanaka, mausoleums and bath-house.
The mosque was situated in the cente of site. Befoe excavations in its toogahy on that lace was defined the ectangula in lan constuction in a fom of squae in sizes 3530 m, fenced by the walled bank in the height u to 2 m and width 6-8 m. Afte excavations was discoveed the constuction in sizes 32,626,7 m by inne contou olonged fom the South-West to the Noth-East. Entance width 1,9 m is in the cente, of the Noth-East wall, on the oosite is situated mikhab.
The mosque is efeed to “illa” achitectual constuctions with lain ovelaing, obably wooden-cane, what is oved by the emains of wooden constuctions found in the Public Constructions of Islam Architecture ocess of cleaning of floo of mosque the constuctive suot systems is combined and it is esented by the main columns and aw bick lying of outwad walls.
The inne sace is divided by eight ows of 52 stone bases of columns, amounting nine naves. The ste of columns is the distance between the axes of columns bases 3,5-3,7 m.
The bases of columns ae fomed of ebbles of diffeent sizes and they ae deeened on 10m concening floo level. The ow of fagments of aw bicks is ut on ebble base. It is seen, but the bunt bicks wee ut on the bases of not emained wooden columns. The floo of mosque is made of clay. Thickness of lasteing of yellow colo with disseminations on the geneal gey loess backgound is 10 cm. On the floo was lasteing of white colo in thickness 0,5-0,3 cm. Unde the floo was fixed the gound with boken bick inclusions – stabilization illow.
Mikhab niche is fomed of bunt bick in sizes 27274 cm with use of wooden beams in diamete 15 cm. This is ectangula fom constuction in width 3,09 m and deth 0,9 m, the exessive achitectual solution in a fom of two ectangula side otubeances.
The deth of the fist otubeance is 0,16 m, the second one is 0,41 m. The cental at of niche (the thid otubeance) emained only in fagments, and so it is ossible only to suose esence of ow of aches, foming the ue at of niche, o ach ove laing with geometically coect wide otubeances. The fixed height of mikhab base laying is 0,7 m.
In font of the mikhab is situated the ectangula squae in size 106 m famed by laying made of the ieces of bunt bick ut in one laye. Lying is ut on stone base. Pobably, that not emained wooden balustade was fomed by the eimete of squae, seaating the main sace of mosque fom mikhab. In cente of squae ae ut two bases of columns, cowning the cental fifth nave. The intention of this squae is obvious. It is the sacal at of constuction. So, in the inteio of many mosques of diffeent tyes is clealy seen the mikhab hall.
Nea the mikhab was discoveed the obstuction of bunt beams, which ae obably the emains of minba – ulit of iest. Thee wee also found the tacey bonze lates – obably, the iece of book-cove (Koan?).
The walls of mosque ae fomed of ow bicks in sizes 34-36148-9 cm on clay solution, thickness of walls is 1,3-2,6 m height u to 2 m. The seams between bicks ae 0,8-4 cm. Bick laying is obseved on all width of wall. In some laces thee ae seen the taces of laste of bown colo and the taces of white-washing. The colo lasteing in some laces got eddish – oange colo. Thickness of lasteing is 1,5 cm. In the thickness of walls wee of discoveed kans ove at the entance in the noth-westen ats.
Cleaning of the vetical suface at of South-West wall showed the height of lying in 13 ows bick (1,38 m) laid at base fomed of boken stone of had geat of blue-gey colo.
The height of base is 18 cm. On the level of base, what was seen by shafts ut fom outwad side is obseved building obstuction made of aw bicks. On the level 30-40 cm fom the beginning of hoizontal lying of stone base in the body of wall wee fixed two ows of bunt bick can be identified, like hydoizolation eventing caillay absotion of moistue by aw bick lying of wall.
The inteesting eculiaity of mosque is the establishment inside its walls of kans-system of heating of emise, by connecting channels of which duing cold month wee ciculating smoke and hot ai.
Minaet was not discoveed, but secific featues of elies show its obable localization in the East at on not essential distance fom outwad walls of mosque.
Chapter II Fom the southen at to the walls of mosque is coming close unde ectangula lying fomed of bouldes. Thei sizes diffes aveage fom 1,5 cm u 2 metes. They ae Moslem buials.
Among the most inteesting findings on the mosque it is necessay to note caved bunt boad with fagment of inscition, made by geometic kuhic. Text is not eadable, because of the fagmentay chaacte. The boad consisted of two fagments with total length about 1 m and width 15-18 cm was found at the East wall in the noth-easten cone.
The mosque of Golden Hode time, excavated on Vodyanskoe site is the most close of the Kayalyk mosque63.
The sizes of mosque ove, that it was the Cathedal one, it means, that it was the main in the caital town and it is not excluded, that is was the main in all the state of Kaluk djabgy64. The mosque is dated by the second half of the XIII–XIV c.
Cathedral mosque of Otrar of the late XIV – early XVI c. is situated in the southeasten at of Cental hill. Constuction was discoveed in the South section of excavation IV in the South-East at of site. The wall of house of the XVII c. had the comb of bick laye. The destoyed quadangula column with the side 1,3 m fomed of quadangula bunt bick on ganch solution with gooves and the cones fo fixing was discoveed by shafts.
Vey soon wee discoveed the emains of othe columns ut in the secial ode. It’s become clea, that in the thickness of cultual laye is situated the monumental constuction of bunt bick.
In the esult of seveal seasons of excavation wee discoveed the emains of Cathedal Mosque. Building squae fo it was leveled comehensively. The floos had the maks 4,47m in the southen at of constuction; 4,39-4,44 m – in the West at; 4,43 – in the East at. The floo of mosque is esented by the dense lasteing without the taces of humus. In some laces wee discoveed the holes of obviously temoay fie laces, which aeaed afte the constuction stoed to function. The mateials of ovelaing laye ae imotant to date the mosque.
They ae dwelling constuction, lanning of which distoted the initial constuction.
The oen sace of mosque with columns was fenced by the walls and columns themselves wee included into the constuction of walls. It is chaacteistic, that on the floos thee is no laye of obstuction, consequently, at the moment of e-lanning the building was well emained. It is oved by the evidence, that thee is no debis layes unde the walls of dwelling emises, laye of walls is made mostly of aw bicks and sometimes they ae made of bunt bicks, mostly boken ones. Filling of sufas in emises is fiable, including bick cumb, ieces of alabaste, loess.
Dwelling omises functioned duing the long time. Two levels of floos with walls wee fixed eveywhee. Sometimes old walls wee cut off and changed fo the new ones.
Functional intention of emises was changed. At the southen edge the section on the lace of dead-end siding aeaed the thoough steet, diected to the fotess wall. Sufas, tandys and flue had been changed not one time and the inteio had been changed. But in geneal chaacte of constuction of two building hoizons is simila: dwelling egion with common fo the Medieval Ota tyes of houses with obligatoy oom with wide sufa with the installed oven-tandy with flue.
The houses wee fomed into dwelling blocks, cente of which wee inne block small steets.
In the laying of walls of houses was used the whole bick of the disassembling mosque.
In the cente of emises aea bick and stone suots of columns, what is the chaacteistic Public Constructions of Islam Architecture featue of lain ovelaing. Stong obstuction of bunt bick was discoveed above the last floo of dwelling hoizon. At that eiod constuction of mosque was destoyed comletely.
The walls and boken ovelaing of thown dwelling wee destoyed by bicks and only stong suot columns of once coveed galleies of mosque, cemented by ganch solution, wee included into the laying of the latest walls.
Chonology of dwelling hoizon was established moe definitely in comaison with the time of constuction of mosque, fist of all thanks to the abundance of coe coins found in the teasue of emise and laid single.
Teasue of Sheibanid coins and single findings of the same coinage let to date the thid hoizon by the second half of the XVI c.
Ceamic comlex fom dwelling constuction of the III hoizon is analogous in geneal to the ceamic of Ota of the XVI c. fom othe objects and finds the diect aallels in the synchonous Cental Asian collections.
Constuction of new walls on the floos of mosque fo foming dwelling emises followed afte the sto of functioning of the monumental constuction. The esented ideas let to efe this event to ealy XV–XVI c., and date of constuction of mosque is consideed the late XIV – ealy XV c. what is oved by the coins fom mosque’s floos, dated by the late XIV – ealy XV c.
The mosque in sizes 6022 m is olonged by the line East-West. Entance in the cente of the nothen facade is fomed in the fom of otubeance otal with ectangula in lan ylons in sizes 2,71,35 m. The distance between suots of otal is about 6 m. The westen ylons emained on height u to 1,7 m, the East one was taken off fo bicks almost comletely. On the cones of otal wee ut cylindical in base minaets in diamete 2 m.
Inside the minaets wee sial staicases fo entance fom inne side though entance aetue in width 1 m. Fou stais of ladde on the westen side of otal emained.
Font comosition of building includes fou though galleies, fomed by thity squae columns in sizes 1,351,35 m efes, ut in thee ows. Aetue between suots of ovelaing is 3,7 m.
On the axes of entance wee situated two halls. Suots ovelaing wee disassembled almost comletely. The column of ectangula cut in sizes 3,31,6 m on the west side of the fist hall fom the entance emained. Two font columns of the main hall with mikhab niche emained atially. We may suose that the columns had the comound cut. Black side suots look like quadangula ylons on both sides of mikhab.
In the mikhab wall of building thee is doo aetue with high theshold which was oened to the side of steet and dwelling constuction and the entance wall of town fom the South side. The walls of mosque in thickness 1,35 m, the cones of the main faade ae fomed in the fom of ilastes. The yad of mosque in sizes 4022 m in situated between the facade wall of mosque and the constuction in the nothen at of comlex by inne contou of walls. The geneal sizes of mosque with the yad and nothen constuction amount 7222 m.
The floo in the yad of mosque, judging by the emained sections and the esence of ieces of ganch mota was fomed by quadangula bunt bick in sizes 25255 cm. The walls of constuction wee made of the same bicks.
Constuction in the nothen at of comlex esents the achitectual assage fomed of the cental coido in width 3,47 m with emises fom the both sides. The emises of the South at ae not essential by the sizes 3,411,42 m. Pobably, they ae aiwans, the inne sace of which is seaated fom the coido by the small wall (theshold) in one bick, Chapter II at the same time the width of the beam walls is and inne ones it is 0,78 m. Five emises ae been excavated comletely, the sixth one – atially.
The emises situated fom the Noth side of coido ae mio view of the South line of the emises – aiwans, established aallel. Five ooms ae excavated comletely. One is excavated atially. Pemises of this line ae divided fo two ats constuctively. The fist one is going to the coido tambou niche-aiwan in sizes 3,51,4 m with the entance established in the noth-westen at, in width 1,1 mete, going to the second at of emise.
Back nothen wall of emise, which is obably, at the same time the outwad wall of all comlex is not been studied yet and it is not ossible to define the length of emises. The width of emises is 3,7 metes, the walls fomed of bunt and aw bicks. The second building eiod was fixed, duing which some emises wee built comletely with constuction of sufas. The sixth oom diffes by its sizes in comaison with five evious ones. Details and additional eculiaities of constuction is not ossible to study thanks to the latest layes.
The main walls of aiwans of the South axes and tambou-aiwans of the Noth axes, obably had the final detail, like ach ovelaing, which connecting with aetues of coido fomed the constuction, called like coss-vaulting aetue.
Duing excavations on the teitoy of the yad of mosque was discoveed the coin teasue. Coe teasue consists of 172 samles. And it is inteesting that it is in the concete chonological iece of time of the late XV – ealy XVI c. Usually the teasues discoveed in Ota and in the suoundings of Tukestan (Ota and Saachik teasues) halt the coins dated by ealy XVI u to the XVIII cc. and consist of the vaious tyes of towns Yassy – Tukestan, Saiam, Tashkent. The coins of the Cental Asian towns ae athe ae and single. Cuently on the teitoy of Ota oasis the investigating teasue is single, findings of simila teasues ae widely known in Cental Maveannah.
As it was noted, squae fo the mosque was leveled comehensively. The bases of columns ae deeened fo 15-20 cm into thoough it, filled by late ahsa with addition of coals, like isolato fom soil salts. The geneal thickness of loess base is 1,1 m65. This is taditional method of otection fom shinkage of monumental constuctions, which was used widely in the medieval achitectue of Cental Asia and Kazakhstan66.
The main constuctions, like walls, columns, ylons of otal ae fomed of bunt quadangula bicks of good quality with size 25-28 cm, whole o halves. The bicks ae ut stictly egula off on ganch mota. Somewhee on the walls emained thin initial laye of ganch laste.
The inteesting was the achitectual dco of mosque, whee judging by the findings
in dwelling emises of ovelaing laye, the imotant ole layed ceamic coveings:
coloful glazed bicks and tiles of blue and dak blue colos, olychomic majolica in a fom of quadangula and ectangula tiles. Thee ae discoveed tales with caved geometic onament. The main mass of glazed coveing was found in the emises on the lace of hall and wall with mikhab niche. Thee wee found fagments of ceamic gating on windows, which is called anjaa.
Ota Cathedal mosque is efeed to the constuctions of column-cuola tyes, well known in the medieval achitectue of Cental Asia67. Column constuctions make close Ota mosque With Kyiyktobe mosque, while the last one was built athe ealie, in the X c.
and it esents the ealy stage in the develoment of tyology of the column mosques68.
It is vey imotant to show the eason o the easons of destoys of mosque, as econstuction of section with mosque into dwelling block was not common event in the life of town. Siitual institutions, “sacificial laces” (mosques, medese, mazas) ket Public Constructions of Islam Architecture duing the centuies inviolability of oety and ofits fom it, given by wakuf lettes.
Fo examle, it is well known wakuf lettes of Timu the mausoleum of Khodja Akhmed Yassawi and some othe mazas in Tukestan. The following ules of town confimed, as it was acceted, wakufs of maza.69 It is doubtless, that in the life of Ota thee haened some imotant changes, connected with the change of owe.
Afte the town fie the building was used, like the temoay cove, judging by the emains of fie-laces and humus and then it was ebuilt into dwelling. Aaently, not only the change of the olitical owe in town became the eason of quick econstuction of mosque, as submission of town to Timuides was being continued till the middle of the XV centuy, while ight afte the death of Timu Ota was conqueed by Nu ad-Din, who ket it 4 yeas. And only to the middle of the XVI c. Sydaia towns had been subodinated by Abulkhai khan70.
The contents of citizens had not being changed, but the mosque was destoyed and the bicks fom it wee taken off. It is obviously, the main eason was not full constuction of its building. The mosque emained only in the ocess of constuction and nobody ayed thee it was not sanctified and so it had the same fotune71.
Cathedral Mosque of Otrar of the XVI–XVII cc. Mateials of excavations of Ota give the bight imagination on the life of town in the XVI–XVIII cc.
In the XVI c. wee built again thown sections of shakhistan. To the same town is efeed the constuction of the monumental mosque of bunt bicks, situated in the South at of Cental hill. Constuction of column-cuola tye was built on the base, deeened fo 0,4 m. The geneal length of mosque is not known. The width of mosque is 15,5 m. Building of mosque consisted of cental hall and two attached wings. Entance to the mikhab hall is defined by otal, which emained on height 1,5 m togethe with base. The sizes of cental hall ae 77 metes. In the cente of hall emained fagments of the destoyed cuola. Destoy of cuola haened because of fall of the ight otal. Thee wee defined the taces of the eai, unde which the walls had been thickened. The walls of mikhab and e-mikhab niche ae coveed by thin ganch lasteing.
The mosque of Ota of the XVII c. was the Cathedal with the wide squae in font of the mosque. Safety of mosque uins is good. Constuction was built of bunt bicks in sizes 25255 cm. Plaste of walls of mikhab and e-mikhab niche was destoyed by layes. Consevation of object was done not one time: in the yea 2002-2004 – in fames of the oject UNESCO – Kazakhstan – Jaan “Pesevation and Restoation of Ancient Ota”, in the yea 2005 – the additional consevational measues72.
Block mosque of Otrar. Duing excavations of the south-easten section of Otatobe site by level of the XVI–XVIII cc., on joint of the East and South ats of excavation IV thee was cleaned out the big building in squae 200 sq. m, consisted of six emises. It is obvious, that building is not dwelling, but they ae the emains of mosque. It is oened by its faade to the squae, whee thee steets ae going out fom South-West, Noth and West sides. The last steet is going to the main steet of town, connecting town gates.
The building was built of high quality aw bicks and it was lasteed not one time.
It is seen by fagments, that in decoation of building was used the figues caved bick, the floo was coveed by bunt bicks. Location of mikhab was not ossible to define. Pobably, it was situated in the South wall of emise 198, at the same lace, whee the it of ue hoizon cut the wall. The ooms of mosque had diffeent intention: hall was fo aishiones (emise 198), kitchen – fo cooking itual food (208) oom fo lavabo (210), ooms of cult sevants (223 and 224)73.
Chapter II Desite of fact, that section was elanned unde emises of ue building hoizon, the bunt bick fom constuction was almost taken off, the walls and floos wee destoyed by the late its. Fom the West side to the comlex was joint the obbe’s cate, lanning of building is being estoed comletely. By the level of floos and some changes in lanning thee ae defined two eiods in the existence of building.
Initially comlex consisted of hall (emise 198) in sizes 10,18,5 m, and joint to it fom the East side two-ow suite of thee and two emises. The entance to the emises was though the doo aetue in cental at of the West wall of hall. The oosite East wall is fomed by not dee niche of height 0,9 m fom floo. The emained sections of walls ae lasteed vey well in seveal times, the floo had been lasteed seveal times. And ove la wee ut on to fou columns, symmetically establish had in the cental at of hall.
The doo aetue in width 0,78 m close to the south-easten cone in the easten wall was going to the emise 210 in sizes 4,253,0 m. The floo thee was coveed by bunt bicks and in the cones thee wee established tashnau. Secial vessels in fom of cylinde diamete 20 cm, in height 1,3 cm with blown body (0,46 m) wee used, like wate sink wells.
This emise is though: fom the Noth side thee is the ass to the adjacent emises 208 and 209, and fom the East side – to the emises 223 and 224.
Premise 208 in size 21,5 m. In the Noth wall was installed fie lace of chimney tye in width 0,28 which is deeened into the wall fo 0,45 m. The walls of fie-lace ae bunt stongly. Fie-chambe, situated on the height 0,4 m fom the floo, filled by white ash and not bunt emains of bushwood. Wate sink is situated unde the floo. It is stated in 0,45 m fom the South wall and it is olonged along the West wall and the unde the ight angle tuns fo the west, then it is going unde the wall and the it is installed along the Noth wall of hall. It was not ossible to obseve whee thee was the end of wate sink. It is obseved on the length 6,75 m. Channel of wate sink is fomed of bunt bicks.
In the premise 209 (3,32,25 m) the floo is coveed by aw bicks. At the easten wall on the floo laid wooden blocks in length 1,1 m, suosedly, emains of ove la.
The floor of premises 223 and 224 wee coveed by bunt bicks in the last eiod of functioning of building. The sizes of emises ae not been defined.
Two its suosed to kee gain ae elated to the initial floo in the emise 224. In the it at the nothen wall of emise was found the teasue of coe coins (170 ieces), which was ket in the small bag. In the easten wall close to the noth-easten cone on the level of ue floo was cut the new ass to the emise 209, thee was enewed wate sink, the floo wee ut u in the west emises Cathedral Mosque on Registan of Sauran. Study of mico toogahy inside fotess walls of Sauan showed, that town squae was situated, in 80 m, to the South fom the nothen gates, fom whee is stated stone tile ebbled cental steet in width u to the 3 m. Investigational excavations confimed esents on the squae of uins of fundamental ublic constuctions made of bunt bicks, ove laed by the laye of obstuctions74. As excavations showed, the building of the Cathedal Mosque on the cental squae of Sauan was destoyed comletely duing the emoval of quality bick fo its seconday use.
It was established, that the constuction has two main eiods of existence. And in the second eiod the building stoed its functioning by its diect intention. On the floos of “mikhab at of mosque” thee wee obseved the taces of temoay fie-laces, bon-fies.
As thee was evealed only south-westen one thid at of all comlex it was suosed, that the mosque had close-yad lanning. The yad had the sizes 15,317,8 m and all emises situated by the eimete looked to the yad.
Public Constructions of Islam Architecture The south-westen side of yad fomed the main building of mosque, o mikhab at, which wee efeed to the yad by entance ach otal. The constuction had two ow of five-nave comosition with osed, that the mosque had close-yad lanning. The yad had the sizes 15,317,8 m and all emises situated by the eimete looking to the yad.
The south-westen side of yad fomed the main building of mosque, o mikhab at, which wee efeed to the yad by entance ach otal. The constuction had two ow of five-nave comosition with ach-cuola ove laing75.
The wide otal with defined eshtak is going to the closed yad. In the cente of yad on the main axis is situated the will, and then thee is situated aiwan in width 16 m and deth 6 m, oened to the yad.
This comositional axis of symmety is eendicula to the axis, going though the cente of the main otal, which is established in the south-easten facade wall with some dislace fom the axis of ectangula of yad. Entance otal is asymmetical in egad to all constuction. Such unusual lan of comlex was, obviously, oved by location of mosque: it closed the noth-westen side of ectangula squae and it was necessay by tadition to diect mikhab and it means one of the main axes of comosition of lan to the South-West. The base of ight ylon emained fom otal Squae. Its width is 1,8 m, it is going out of the line of faade wall fo 2,2 m. Thee emained also at of entance theshold-dandana in a fom of at on ibbons bicks. The length of the emained section of dandana is 2,15 m. Behind that theshold on distance 4,05 m emained atially the section of dandana of inne of doo theshold.
The left ylon aeaed destoyed comletely, but the width of entance aiwan can be econstucted. The seaate bicks of the lowest laye of ylon ae defined.
Outwad of comlex of mosque fom the ectangula in size 3133,5 m. The walls wee destoyed essentially. By the emained somewhee of laye is defined the thickness of wall, which is 1,4 m. The biggest safety in 9-10 layes of lying has the section of south-easten facade wall of to the ight fom entance otal. This section of wall of a big cone emise (5,25,6 m), which functioned also in the second eiod. Afte functioning of mosque by its intention, on its essential at was established and functioned duing the long time the ceamic woksho. Pobably, some at of mosque’s building was aleady destoyed. At that eiod in the cone emise was built a big ound shaed two-laye oven fo ceamics.
Thee emained the at of the suface of od with egula holes of camea fo buing, which was suoted on to the cuola of low fie camea. Mouth of oven is tuned to the cone emise, which, obviously, seved also like dwelling emise, o, obably, woksho.
At the outwad cone of faade wall of mosque to the ight side, in 5,25 m fom the entance otal thee was evealed the base of Г-shaed constuction. Laye of its two walls emained on height of nine layes. The walls foming the ight angle in thickness 0,85 m and fomed by them constuction ae going out of the line of facade wall fo 2,05 m. In the lace of joint of constuction’s wall to the faade wall of mosque, it was taken off u to the base and it is seen, that the constuction was done with lying of the facade wall. Aaently, that the constuction occuied the cone of squae, fomed by the facade wall of mosque and its south-westen wall of side facade of a big ublic constuction, the entance otal of which is going to the otal of medese in the noth-easten at of squae. This building is being econstucted, like fundamental constuction of closed – yad lanning with otal entance, diected to the iece of cental steet on one axis with medese situated in font of it.
The nothen cone of squae occuied small, not clea by its intention constuction, and at the othe end of facade wall of mosque have been cleaned the emains of athe essential by its sizes tahaathana.
In the evealed by excavations Cathedal Mosque lanning aeaed athe oiginal and safety of constuctions let to econstuct the achitectual view of this inteesting building.
Desite of the essential destoys and losses, lanning of mosque comlex is been estoed comletely. The eceived mateials and obsevations let in futue to ealize consevation with elements of econstuction of the evealed achitectual details o all achitectual view of building76.
Sauran Ait Mosque is situated in 50 m to the South-East of the nothen side to Sauan site behind the town wall. The mosque consists of small building, oened to the side of yad, suounded by ahsa wall. The sizes of yad ae 5050 m. Squae of building with cuola ovelaing is 11,512,5 m. In kiblah westen side is situated the mikhab. Potal of building is efeed to the Noth-West. The width of all otals is 12,5 m with joint aiwan in deth 2,75 m. Fom the bath sides of aiwan ae situated ylon with scew laddes which led to the oof of mosque. The est two aiwans ae situated fom the both sides of cuola hall. The sizes of aiwans ae simila: width is 3,8 m, the deth is 2 m. Thesholds of all thee aiwans ae coveed by dandana – the bicks ut of ibbon. The floos of all emises and aiwan wee initially coveed by bunt bicks, which had been destoyed by the time. The wall mosque is built of aw bicks with cove made of bunt bicks. The sizes of bicks ae 26265, 25255, 24,524,54,5 cm. Mikhab is situated in the middle of kiblah wall of cuola hall. The width of five side mikhab is 1,4 m, the deth is 0,7 m, and the height of the emained at of lying is 0,6 m. To the ight side fom mikhab is situated minba in sizes 14 m, in height 0,5 m.
The lowest ow of minba ste emained. Afte sto of existence of mosque, the cuola hall was ovelaed fom all sides by aw walls in thickness in one bick and it was used like dwelling emise situated fom the outwad side behind the wall with mikhab.
The finding, like ceamics, metal items ae dated by the XV–XVI cc. The mosque was built in the XVI c77. The esults of excavations showed, that investigating objects is the Holiday Mosque, whee ayed duing such holidays, like Aits and othe cult measues. On the teitoy of Kazakhstan the mosque of such tye had been investigated fo the fist time fo the fist time.
Djankent Mosque. Town “Djankent”, “Yangikent”, “Al-Kaiyai al Hadisa al-Medina al-Djazida” “Dih i-nau”, what means “New Town” is situated in Aal egion, in 15 km to the West fom Kazalinsk town. It coesonds to the site Djankent78. The emains of Mosque ae situated on the teitoy of Myn-tobe site, which is the emains of e-dislocated in the XVIII c.
Djankent site, existed on that lace in the XIII–XV cc. It is situated aoximately in 2 km to the Noth-West fom the site Djankent and it is esented by the seaate eath hills.
The aoximate squae of site is 300400 m. On its teitoy ae fixed the seaate small gound hills in diamete u to 12 m, in height u to 1 m. To the South-West of site ae situated seveal hills, which ae obably, the emains of seaate famsteads.
Suface mateial is esented by the collection of fagments of ceamic vessels, blue tiles, bones of animals, coe coins of the XIV–XVII cc.
Public Constructions of Islam Architecture Necoolis of site is situated in 700 m to the South-West of site and at esent time its constuctions ae situated unde dwelling houses.
The emains of mosque wee discoveed duing dig of channel. In the noth-easten at of excavation thee wee evealed the noth and the westen walls of mosque. The cone between walls is in a good safety. Constuctions of ectangula in lan and it ae diected by its cones to the sides of Univese. The sizes of constuction ae 1316,9 m.
Well emained nothen at of constuction is fomed of hoizontally ut bunt bicks.
And only the easten at of nothen wall was destoyed.
The outwad edge of wall is fomed of one ow ectangula bicks in sizes 2626 cm. The middle at of wall and its inne edge is fomed of quadangula bicks in sizes 24245 cm.
Thickness of wall is 1,4 m, the height of the emained at is 0,72 m.
The easten wall was evealed atially and only inne edge of wall in one ow of bicks was emained in fagments. On distance 4 m fom the nothen wall on the deth 0,78 m wee cleaned out the emains of constuction in a fom of at togethe with bunt bicks of ound shaed fom with beveled edges.
The south-easten cone of mausoleum is fixed in a fom of bick’s obstuction. In the cental at of constuction was cleaned out the easten at of constuction in a fom of densely ut togethe quadangula bicks unde decline downwad.
Pieces of bunt bicks, glazed tiles, fagments of ceamics, and bones of animals wee found along all squae of excavation on diffeent levels. Ceamics was easel and it was made of fine ganula sand. Boken of ceamics wee of ed and gey colos. The main onamental zone of otte is ceamics ae nimbus and shouldes of vessels. Onament is in a fom staight caved and wave shaed lines on the shouldes of vessels and nimbus with olles and tweaks. Thee ae also fagments with blue and geen glaze.
Facing tiles wee coveed by blue glaze and they wee of ectangula, taeze and quadangula fom with the elief hebal, eigahic and caved geometical onament.
The evious dating of constuction is the XIV–XV cc.
At the beginning the constuction was defined like mausoleum79, but most likely it was the mosque. It is oved by a big quantity of facing tiles with inscitions, coveed by blue glaze.
The Mosque of Hyzyr Paigambar in Sairam village. Saiam-Isidjab is the lagest town of the medieval South Kazakhstan is identified with the site in Saiam village, on the teitoy of which had been saved the emains of the medieval site.
Isidjab was one of the centes of sead of Islam, what is oved by witten souces, which call this town, like “gloious bodeing fotess and the lace of wa fo the belief”80.
Even the fist exloes of Saiam noted, that fo this town was chaacteistic the abundance of sacificial laces, like mazas, foming the ide of citizens and the descibed secial isolya.
M.E.Masson called the most sacificial laces of Saiam, like Mausoleum of IbahimAta, Kaashash-Ana, Abdel-Azizi-Bab, Miali-bab, Khadji-Taliga and also the lace of ohet Hyzy, which lay in uins in 1866 y. At the beginning of the XX c. on that lace was built the new building. Fom the old mosque emained chilly-khana and stone column which is dated by M.E.Masson by the X–XI cc.81 At esent time disaeaed also the new building and so the achaeological excavations wee caied out fo study of mosque, which can be the ealiest in base.
The field woks of 2007 y. evealed lanning stuctue of constuction, ossibility of econstuction of monument and getting of the ceamic comlexes, defining the eiod of its existence82.
Chapter II In the nothen at was evealed almost quadangula in lan constuction, the walls of which wee made of bunt bicks in sizes 23234,5 and 25254,5 cm.
Premise #1 is the most southen in comlex. It was, aaently, quadangula in lan – 9,69,45 m. The bases of walls ae safe. The southen wall is fomed of small tiles of shale.
Inside the emise thee wee cleaned out two levels of floo. The both of them ae elatively lain, having a small decline into the southen side. Inside the emise thee wee cleaned out 8 bases of columns. Two of them ae made of stone monoliths; the est ones ae made of thin shale tiles and bunt bicks. The fist ow fom the southen foms thee bases of columns.
The second ow lay on the distance almost 2 m. The thid ow is also olonged by the line east-westen and is on the equal distance fom the nothen wall fom the middle ow.
In the noth-easten at of the emise was established the entance-loweing into undegound chilly-khana, olonged by the line East-West.
In accodance to the descition on of A.K.Geins, who visited it, “fo the fist tun ae going the staight stes, then is going scew ladde, doing to the naow hole in clay soil, into which you can go, atting you legs ahead. By such manne you can each the cave is width seveal stes. On the floo ae thown the mats fo ays of the devout ilgims. Thee Hyzy escued in obsevation of Allah, who did not go out duing sixty yeas, and then afte living many yeas, he was taken alive to the sky”83.
Premise #2, joint with emise #1, easten and nothen walls. The West wall was destoyed and actically it is not safe. Nevetheless, it is athe obvious, that the westen wall was geneal fo the emises #1 and 2 and it was the outwad wall of mosque. Inside the emise thee wee evealed seveal levels of floos. Fou columns in the cente of emise ae connected with two ue ones.
Pobably, the mikhab niche was situated in the westen wall. Suosedly, the entance to the emise was situated in the cente of the easten wall.
In the south-westen cone, almost on 0,3 m lowe, than floo level with columns thee was discoveed the iece of the wooden beam in length 0,55 m and with 0,12 m. Pobably, they ae emains of the one beams of lain ovelaing of the ealiest eiod of the existence of mosque.
Fom the Noth-East to the emise #2 joint the ectangula in lan two ste hilling, in the cente of which was situated the small hill of clay and bick obstuction. The taces of buials wee evealed in the ocess of cleaning out.
So it is vey clea, that this is dahma, at esent case it is two-ste latfom-hilling aised fo buials of honoed sufian sheiks ae io of mosque. It was built close to the main building of mosque late. On the second stage the squae of excavation was widened in the southen diection and to the East and it amounted 2431 m. Duing the woks thee wee evealed the taces of two building hoizons. Along the southen wall of the emise #1, on the deth 0,85-0,9 m fom the day suface thee was cleaned out one moe line of wall and moe ecisely, its stone base. Aaently, they ae the emains of base of the ealiest outwad wall of mosque, about the destoying of which infoms M.E.Masson84.
Widening of excavation to the East evealed that the sace in cente did not have any constuctions and it was the yad. In that at was cleaned out the ebbled by bunt bicks and ieces the oad, going to the undegound oom chilly-khana in the cente of the easten facade of the mosque.
In the southen at of yad thee wee cleaned out the emains of two small emises #4 and #5, joining to the south-easten cone of summe mosque.
Excavations in the easten cone let to follow the southen wall of mosque’s yad on the length 20,5 m. Fa wall is not saved, but most likely, it tuned to the Noth, whee in Public Constructions of Islam Architecture the middle of the easten wall was situated the cental entance. At the south-easten cone in 3 m fom the wall on one of the latest stages of the existence of mosque was built the minaet.
Minaret of mosque was situated on the left side of not saved otal. Minaet was fomed of bicks on clay solution and it esent one of tyes of towe constuctions. Its initial height eached 10,5 m. The height of the emained at is about 5 m, diamete at the base is 2,9 m.
Round shaed towe of minaet, which was naowed uwad, was cowned by lost cuently lanten otunda. The ue at of towe was divided by the hoizontal belts of the figues lying. Thee wee seen the faces of low, 3 belt, which was filed ealie by Aab inscition.
The inne scew ladde was made of bick and it is suoted on to the wooden beams and bick column in the cente of minaet85.
The discoveed achaeological mateial was coming mostly fom ue building hoizon fom the emises of mosque itself. They ae glazed vessels like kese, iala, dishes, lates, which could be efeed to the late XIX and XX c. In collection of ceamics thee ae seaate fagments, dated by the XVII–XVIII cc.
So, the woks in the mosque Hyzy in Saiam evealed lanning of the constuction.
Desite of stong destoy of mosque, is established, that it consisted of a big ectangula yad with entance fom the easten side. On the longitudinal axis with situated entance to the mosque – quadangula building with aiwan joint to it.
Evidently, in Saiam Hyzy mosque the emise #2 with fou column hall was the mosque-khanakawith lain ove laing. Aiwan-emise #1 joint fom the South was used like summe mosque. In the cente of westen wall was established the mikhab, decoated by aintings. Fom the same lace is coming semi-column, coveed by glaze of blue colo, in ue at of which thee ae the emains of caves gating. Ove laing of aiwan was lain and it was suoted on to the wooden and one stone column on stone o bick bases.
The Mosque of Djankala site was discoveed in 2009 y. duing the field oute of exedition of scientific oganization “Achaeological Exet”, headed by D.A.Voyakin.
The emains of mosque ae situated outwad the walls of Shakhistan in the easten at of site. The sizes of constuction made of ow bicks ae 9,79,7 m. In the south-westen wall of it was situated the mikhab. The mosque is dated by the XIV c86.
Khanaka Khanaka had been built like monumental buildings. Excet the main intentions khanaka had othe intentions too: they wee hotels, not only fo devishes, but fo ilgims and taveles; they seved like the temoay esidences fo tavelling ules; the lace fo eading ay studies. In case some imotant eson, like the founde of Ode o honoed membe of Sufian bothehood o famous noble eson was buied thee, that house got the functions of maza – the lace of woshi and ilgimage.
All khanaka ae comact buildings with moe o less centic establishment, sometimes equal facade, moe often – with the main facade, which is defined by the lagest otaleshtak. Cente and obligatoy main at of khanaka is a big hall fo devish actions87.
Kayalyk Khanaka. Fom the constuction ae safe only the bases of walls with the fixed ow of bunt bicks in sizes 27274 cm. The westen wall of constuction was destoyed by the village oad and ive.
Investigations established esence of eleven emises. Geneal size of constuction is 19,719,7 m.
Chapter II Well emained in lan easten at of constuction and also two emises of the westen at give the ossibility to make gahical econstuction of the main volume the building had centic oganization of inne sace, wee coss-shaed hall fom fou sides was suounded by oen emises in sizes 56 m. In fou cones of ectangula of inne sace thee wee situated by thee emises in each: quadangula cone (55,5 m) and two ectangula (3,55,5 m), joint to the quadangula fom both sides.
The yad was ove laed by oof, what is oved by fou massive cubic fom stones – bases of columns, on which was suoted ove laing.
Unde the floo of some emises wee fixed the buials. This fact tells that building of khanaka was afte building of mausoleums and aeaance on the lace of sace nea mausoleums of the cemetey. So initially was built the big westen mausoleum, to which fom the easten site was built one moe mausoleum. The sace to the West was used fo buials. In the thid eiod of that lace was built khanaka, and the teitoy to the Noth fom mausoleums was used fo building of comlex of dwelling and household constuctions, obably, connected with comlex of mausoleums and khanaka.
They ae seveal emises, among which is defined dwelling emise with tandy and enclosue fo cattle to the West fom it. Pemise of enclosue was ove laed fom it by the laye of boken bicks in thickness 0,5 m, efeed to the building of bunt bicks outside the limits of excavations fom the noth-westen side. It was not ossible eveal the intention of othe emises because of a bad safety of constuctions.
Section of esent constuction had clea bodes with the emains of mausoleum, joining closely to the obstuction of bicks. Unde the obstuctions wee cleaned the emains of back wall of mausoleum, emained in length fo 3,7 m, thickness 0,82 m88.
Sauran Khanaka is situated to the Noth of cental uins. The emains of the destoyed by time aw bick constuction ae still safe. It consisted of seven emises lan of constuction is well “eadable”. Outwad walls of all emises constuctions ae destoyed, excet emises #2 and #7. Thei initial thickness was 1,2 m. And outwad wall of the emises #3 and #5 was going out of the line of faade fo 1,2-1,3 m.
Constuction is diected by the sides of univese. The main entance to the comlex is situated in cente of the southen wall in deth (ach?) aiwan, which has the width 4,3 m and deth 2,8 m (emise #1). It was going to the cental quadangula emise (#8) in sizes 6,16,1 m. It seved like the connecting one, though which it was ossible to each all emises of comlex. Squae of emises is being inceased at the exense of fou wide (4 m) niches of diffeent deth. In the cente of niches wee established doo aetues though which it was going to the emises of the easten (##6, 7) and westen (##2, 3, 4) ats and also to the nothen emises #5. Not dee niche in height 0,6 m was built in the side wall of the westen, the deeest niche on height 1,30 m fom floo level.
In the south-westen cone of constuction is situated the emise #2. It has quadangula in lan with sizes 3,13,1 m. It was ossible to each it though the doo aetue going staight fom the entance aiwan. The noth-westen cone of constuction occuies the analogous quadangula emise #4, in easten at of which ae being obseved thee niches in width 0,8 and height 0,6 m. Fom that cone emise was also the seaate exit in width 1,1 m to the yad, suounded the achitectual comlex. Pemise #3 (2,54,2 m) is situated between cone quadangula emises #2 and #4. All thee westen emises (##2, 3, 4) ae connected between each othe by the asses, and cone ones have also the seaate exits outwad: emise #2 – to the entance aiwan, emise #4 – to the yad.
Public Constructions of Islam Architecture The nothen emise is connected by doo aetue only with cental coido-emise #8 (3,84,3 m).
In the easten at ae situated two joint emises #6 and #7. Fom the cental coido the doo was going to the emise #7 in sizes 3,59,7 m. To the ight fom the entance (the southen one thid at of emise) was situated wide (about 3,5 m) sufa with tandy. It’s month in diamete 0,55 m is going to the level of sufa suface with height 0,45 m. Two niches in height 0,6 m ae above the sufa on height 1,1 m in the southen wall.
In the nothen wall of the emise #7 was the ass going to the cone quadangula emise #6 (3,52,2 m).
Two cone emises (##2, 4) and coido (#8), aaently wee ove laed by cuolas.
Somewhee in the cones of these emises on height about 2 m ae seen the taces of ach sails. They ae seen vey clealy in the emise #4. Rectangula in lan emises (##3, 5, 6, 7), aaently, had lain beam ove las.
In the obstuction of the destoyed walls in the height about 2,5 m ae seen ound shaed longitudinal saces of bunt beams, installed somewhee into the laying of walls. Obviously, this is seismic belt – ant seismic measue, used vey often in building techniques of Cental Asia and in the South of Kazakhstan.
Planning of famstead, not chaacteistic fo dwelling comlexes of a egion, and at the same time esence of a big kitchen emise with tandy (#7) tell about unusual functional intention of esent constuction. The monumental outwad view, high ach entance aiwan, cuola above which was aised a big cuola above the cental hall, give the basic to see khanaka in esent constuction89.
Medrese Medrese of Sauran. Thee is infomation in witten souces about building of medese in the towns of the southen Kazakhstan. So, it is witten about khan Ezen – son of SasyBuka, and this is fist tens of yeas of the XIV c., in “Anonyme of Iskande”: “he was a vey cleve tsa, eligions, magnificent, God-feaing. He built the biggest at of medese, khanaka, mosques and othe chaity establishments, which ae situated in Ota, Sauan, Djend and Bachikend”90.
The inteesting infomation about Sauan medese is left by the autho of the XVI c.
Zainaddin Wasifi “Duing his stay in Sauan in 1514-1515 yy. he made inteesting notes about Sauan medese with two ocking minaets.” He wites: “On the shouldes (keif) of his aiwan thee ae ut two high minaets of a big height and exteme geneosity so, that one of the oets of this medese identified that aiwan with Zahaka with snakes. Thee was the chain joint to guldasta of that minaets, and unde the cuola of cube of each minaet was built and beam (chub) so, when somebody, who bought that chain into motion, the chain began to move and those who wee standing on the oosite side it seemed that minaet would fall, and this one of miacles of the wold.” Thee is also said, that on occasion of aointment of the chief of medese (mudais). Thee wee invited than fifty students among those, who lived in medese constantly91.
It is necessay to note, that the emains of two high minaets had been ket in the second half of the XIX c. They wee descibed and dawn by P.I.Pashino and A.K.Chains. Thee is also the hoto of minaet made by the hotogahe M.K.Pioov in 1866 y.92 Achaeological seaches evealed visually concentations of ieces of bunt bicks fom medese aound the cente of Sauan site. Excavations let to econstuct lanning of building,
emains of two minaets at the entance, constuctions, which ae doubtless the emains of medese, descibed by Wasifi.
Medese is situated on the cental squae of egistan and it was built in font of the othe monumental constuction, suosedly, also medese and they togethe with excavated on the squae’s westen side of mosque fom the achitectual comlex. Dwelling block, the emains of which wee discoveed in shafts, was destoyed fo constuction of medese93.
Medese is the building of symmetical yad comosition, esenting in lan the ectangula in size 31,528 m. The main entance, defined by two minaets, is diected to the noth-westen. Cleaning of obstuctions at the entance to medese evealed the base of the fist minaet. Thee wee cleaned fou ue ows of minaets base unde the cockle. Cockle is fomed by 11 ows of bick lying. Its height is 1 mete, diamete of base is 3,3 m. The low at of minaets is going out the facade wall. The othe at is integated with the facade wall and otal by the comact laying. Seemingly, the body of minaet was the whole u to the oof, and then it was emty with scew ladde. In the noth-easten vestibule on the nothen edge in the wall emained the stes, going to the oof, and fom that lace it was going inside minaet.
On the lace of the second minaet was cleaned the ectangula constuction of comact lying made of bunt bicks in sizes 23-2523-255-6 cm on clay solution with admixtue of ash (ky). This massive of bick lying has the ectangula lan in sizes 3,52,75 m. Its base is going to the deth almost 2 m fom the level of the theshold and the deth 3 m fom the level of floos of constuction and it is emained on the height 1,75 m.
Fo the establishment of foundation the it had been dig u, which cut the low laid cultual laye. The low ow was made of bicks, ut on ibbon and goued by fou each of them and ut in chess ode. Thee was no fixing solution between bicks, but thee was used only mixtue of wate and ash. Then thee was going lying of six ows of bunt bicks made on solution with admixtue of ash and it was used, seemingly, like hydo isolation mateials.
We can suose that two ows of bicks ut on ibbon without solution layed the function of seismic belt.
The squaes contoued by the wall made of two ows of bunt bicks wee located in font of the faade wall of medese fom both sides fom the entance ladde. The squaes in sizes 127 m had been aised on height 1 m and they wee filled by debis and suface was coveed by whole o boken bicks.
The squae in font of the entance was coveed by stone lates. Tile ste ladde in width 3,3 m and length 4,5 m was going to the entance. The suface of wide stes was coveed by big size (4,5457 cm) bunt lates. The edges of stes wee fomed by the ow of ut on ibbon bicks. The width of entance niche (aiwan) was 2,5 m, deth was 2,25 m.
above the niche was the ach, laid on ut fowad ylons, widened at the exense of closely built to each othe minaets. Then the way was going to the entance vestibule though the doo aetue in width 1,9 m. The entance doo was established in the niche in deth 0,25m and width 3,3 m. In the cones at the entance wee established wide sufas in sizes 1,31,7 m. Vestibule was with two eight sided emises. The way to dashana and to the yad was going though the left side emise. On the nothen bode was cleaned the base of inne wall ladde, going to the oof, whee was the entance to minaet. The ight emise had the asses to the yad, whee was the entance to minaet. The ight emise had the asses to the yad and, most likely, to the mosque, which is, egettably, destoyed comletely.
The ectangula yad in sizes 1815 m was made of bicks, well emained between two ows of dandana (ow of bicks ut on ibbon) in line 2 m. Laying of the cental at of yad was destoyed and emained only in local sections. The fist ow of dandana is ounded Public Constructions of Islam Architecture by the yad by the line of ylons sides, the second one is established on a distance 2,5 m and bodes the squae in sizes 11,78,5 m. In the yad wee evealed two aiwans situated oosite to each othe and oened to the side of yad.
The noth-westen at of yad was occuied by the obstuction fomed unde the destoy of font noth-westen aiwan. The initial size of aiwan was equal to 5,42,3 m and the sides wee inceased then u to 3,5 m. The ach of aiwan had been also fallen.
Duing cleaning of emises it was established that desolation was befoe the destoying, when thin suface laye was fomed, afte what they had gown oots again. Deeened squaes with tashnau comaatively with floo wee established in all emises in font of the entance. In some emises which emained moe o less satisfactoy, thee wee evealed niches in the walls. The floos in the emises wee coveed as by whole and by ieces of bunt bicks. The emises had gown oots duing functioning of medese. Paticulaly, it is defined, that in the emises wee established ovens fo heating with kans in sufas, going to the cone of the emises, in the esult of which the initial level of sufas had been inceased.
Fie-chambe in the emises is situated in the cones of squae so in these laces the boads of squaes had been taken off. Kans was installed by bicks ut on ibbon and ovelaed by whole bicks. Kans has the width 22 cm, inne suface is 12 cm. Late also aeaed incensebunes fo buning of adasan gass “suessing the evil souls”, in a fom of dee holes in the floo, made of fou vetically ut quadangula bunt bicks in sizes 2525 cm in deth 20 cm. Such incense bunes wee also discoveed in thee emises. Duing gowing oots in aiwans font of the emises aeaed sufas having the aoximate sizes 1,40,9 m. Ove laings in the emises, seemingly, wee ach shaed. Mostly obstuctions ae situated in the cente of emises and in fou of them wee discoveed ach shaed fagments of ach lying and taeze shaed in cut ganch lates, by which wee fomed ove lawings. The walls wee coveed by ganch solution, the numeous fagments of which wee discoveed in obstuctions. Glazed lates with hebal and eigahic onament and olished lates, which wee used fo coveing of facades wee found.
Premise # 18 is cone shaed and the biggest one. Its location and size let to inteet it like dashana (hygienic emise). In font of the entance was established tashnau in size 1,61,95 m. The bick in cente with sink was deeened fo 5 cm comaatively the level of tashnau. Initially the emise was though and had the exit to the yad in the notheasten wall. The ass in width 1,2 m, situated in 2 m fom the easten cone of emise had been built futhe. The floo of emise was coveed by bunt bicks. The emise had been destoyed one of the fist because of going down of outwad wall, close to the nothen cone. Ove laing felt diected on to the floo.
Premise # 17 has the sizes 3,353,05 m. The noth-westen emained on height 0,88 m (13 ows) fom the floo level, the noth-easten wall had size 0,9 m (14 ows). In font of Chapter II the entance was established tashnau in sizes 1,051,05 m. To the left fom the entance was established the niche in width 0,66 m in deth 0,4 m. The floo in the emise was made of whole bicks. The theshold in font of the entance had the height of one bick fom the floo of aiwan. On the floo was situated the flown laye of gound in thickness 0,4 m. Sufas on the sides of ass wee established late on aiwan in font of the emise.
In the premise # 16 in sizes 3,352,80 m emained the westen cone and the walls of the est at had been destoyed. In font of the entance was established the squae with tashnau in sizes 1,050,8 m. In the middle of emise on the floo was situated the incensebune in sizes 2525 cm in deth 20 cm. In font of entance fom the ight side emained the boads of aiwan sufa. Among the findings, discoveed in the emise, it is necessay to note the suot fo feathe and cove of ink-ot made of bonze.
Premise# 15 is situated to the Noth-West fom the emise 14. The walls of emise ae destoyed. The easten cone and the left (southen) side of doo aetue emained.
Diections of walls can be defined by floo coveing in the emises. In the obstuction was discoveed fagment of ach shaed laying of ove laing of emise made of fou bicks.
Unde the obstuction was cleaned out the blush laye of loess in thickness 0,3 m in font of the entance was established the squae of tashnau (0,91,03 m), coveed by bunt bicks, bodeed by the boad and theshold. The boads of tashnau in height 0,14 m wee fomed of the halves of quadangula bick, ut on ibbon. The easten cone of boad had been destoyed unde the gowing oots of the oven, and then it was econstucted by boken bicks. Oven-chambe was situated at the easten cone of squae.
Premise# 14 is ectangula in lan (3,62,85 m). Paametes of emise have been econstucted by the seaate fagments of walls. In the cente of emise was cleaned the fagment of ach and ganch coveings. The squae with tashnau was discoveed in font of the entance. At the nothen-bune made of fou bicks ut on ibbon. Its sizes ae 3035 cm, deth 28 cm. At the easten cone of tashnau squae in the south-easten bode was cleaned the fie-chambe (2012 cm) of oven.
Premise# 13 is neighboing with the coido and it is situated to the Noth-East fom it. The emise is of a bad safety, but by the emains of walls was econstucted its size – 3,752,9 m. The entance at was destoyed comletely. The squae with tashnau in font of the entance emained late the at of the left (Noth-East) boad of tashnau was destoyed and in the nothen cone of squae was established fie-chambe of oven. The mouth of fie-chambe in sizes 1816 cm was closed by bicks. The kan to the westen at of emise was installed unde the floo fom fie-chambe.
Premise# 11 is the naow coido (3,851,35 m), though which thee was the way fom the yad to the emises 6, 7 and to the toilet emise 12. The noth-westen wall is dense and its middle at is destoyed comletely. The floo of coido is coveed by bicks.
Premise# 6 is cone one. The entance to the emise is declined fom the cente to the westen cone. In font of the entance was situated tashnau with bicks, with sink in a fom of eight side sta. The boads of tashnau ae made of bicks, ut lain. On the notheasten side of boad was situated fie-chambe of oven. In the easten cone of emise was cleaned the khumcha, its bottom at was cut off.
Premise# 7 is neighboing with emise 6. Entance to the emise is situated in the noth-westen wall. In font of the entance was the squae with tashnau. The floo was coveed by bunt bicks and thei bokenness, which emained on the sides of tashnau and in its back at.
Public Constructions of Islam Architecture Premise# 9 joints to aiwan fom the South-West. In the cente of emise was cleaned the obstuction of bunt bicks and lasteing. In the obstuction wee found fagments of ach laying. The wall with entance was destoyed comletely, but it was maked by the tun of wall. In font of the entance was the tashnau squae with boads. On the floo wee found two coe coins. The teasue was situated unde floo laye.
Premise# 19 joints to the back aiwan fom the South-West. The walls of emise wee destoyed fom thee sides u to the base. The at of noth-westen wall with the ass emained. On that wall at the westen-cone of emise was established the niche in width 0,7 m, deth 0,4 m. Laying of floo was made of bunt bick fagments and it emained along the back wall and at tashnau.
Premise# 20 has sizes 2,91,9 m. The entance to the emise and floo wee coveed by bunt bicks.
Premise# 2 is situated in the southen cone of emise. The sizes of emise ae 2,83,6 m. Safety of emise is bad. The ass to the emise is established in the nothwesten wall. The squae with tashnau is situated in font of the ass to the emise. In the southen cone was established the con-bin with ound-shaed wall, also efeed to the eiod of the second gowing oofs, as it is fomed on the suface laye in thickness 20 cm.
Round shaed bunt sot was on the emained laying of floo at the south-westen wall on the eace of tandy.
Premise# 22 layed the function of coido with the ass fom the yad to the emises 20,23 and though the ass in outwad wall of medese it was going to the side steet. In the coido at the entance fom the side of yad was established the sufa in sizes 0,571,10 m.
Premise# 24 joint to the coido fom the Noth-West the sizes of emise ae 2,92,9 m.
The ass in width 1 mete was established in the noth-easten wall. One ow of bicks emained in font of the sufa in sizes 1,10,25 m. In font of the ass to the emise was established tashnau squae in sizes 0,80,75 m. Fom the noth-westen side of tashnau squae in sufa emained ieces of tandy in diamete 0,55, height 0,25 m. Duing cleaning in tandy, was found the glazed bowl. At the westen cone of squae was situated fie-lace sandal, lasteed into sufa.
Premise # 25 joints fom the Noth-West to the emise 24 (2,652,86 m). Thee wee obseved thee levels of floo in the emise. In font of the entance was situated tashnau squae. At the noth-westen cone of squae with tashnau was semi-destoyed fie-lace sandal with ash and wooden coals.
Premise# 26 has sizes 32,83 m. south-easten and the at of south-westen wall of it emained. In font of the entance was situated the taditional tashnau. At the westen cone was established fie-lace of bunt bicks.
Premise# 27 is neighboing with the emise 26 and it joints to it fom the Noth-West.
The walls of emise wee destoyed comletely. The entance at was also destoyed and emained only the squae with tashnau located some deee. In the westen cone of squae was situated fie-chambe of oven. By the level of that floo was cleaned of fie-lace sandal of fie-side fom in sizes 0,310,36 m, deth 0,33 m. The bottom of fie-lace was coveed by clay. The ash was esented in fie-lace.
Premise #28 is of a bad safety in sizes 3,152,87 m. The walls wee destoyed comletely.
Thee wee also evealed the emains of squae with tashnau, fie-lace sandal and kan fom the oven.
Findings In the emise 1 on the floo of squae with tashnau wee found fagments of glazed and non glazed ceamics. Glazed dish is esented by thee samles of dishes Chapter II on disk-shaed edestal, some fagments of bowls and lates. Painting of inne suface of dishes was done on white colo backgound. On the nimbus thee wee stylized onaments of hebal chaacte and sial shaed bodes and stetches. Bowls and lates ae coveed by glaze and ainting fom the both sides. Unglazed ceamics is esented by the fagments of khums, jags, and ots. Among the findings of ue building hoizon it is necessay to note some coins inside the iece of fabic, found on the floo togethe with ceamics. The coins in diamete 0,5 cm wee oxidized. One moe coe coin was found seaately fom them.
Duing excavations of medese emises wee found fagments of aches and ove lawing, lasteing them the walls without taces of ainting. Suface of lasteing fom some emise was coveed by ash. In the obstuctions wee found the numeous decoative bicks without glaze of diffeent foms (six-sided, hombus shaed, ectangula), which wee discoveed as seaately and in combination with solution. The glazed lates ae esented by six-sided, taeze fom shaed, ectangula foms. Paintings ae onamented by decoations of hebal, geometical and eigahic chaacte. Thee was found fagment of decoation, whee the onament was done by elief shaed method, and it was coveed by blue glaze. In the emise 9 in obstuction in the cente wee found fagments of kubba of the sheical fom, one of which coveed by blue glaze and anothe one – without glaze.
In the emises wee discoveed ink-ots, suots fo feathe. Suot was fou-sided and naowed uwad. The height was 7,5 cm, the base was 44 cm, the ue at was 2,32,3 cm. It was emty inside; diamete of month was 1,3 cm. And it was coveed outside by blue glaze which hombus onament done by bown colo lines. Ink ot was on to at the mouth. The low at is boken.
Cove of ink-ot is fou-sided, with ound shaed cones. Thee was a hole in diamete 1,8 cm on to in the cente. Tiangle shaed hole was done fom one side, obably, it was intended fo feathe. On the suface thee wee two ows of elief slanting lines, divided by the line, foming fu-tee. The suface is coveed by bown glaze.
In the emise # 17 wee found fagments of ink-ot in a fom of vessel with ound shaed body and naow neck. On the neck thee was ound shaed hole fo feathe. In the yad, in font of the emise 17 was found one moe ink-ot of the cylindical fom in height 5 cm, diamete 3,5 cm. Thickness of walls is 0,3 cm with cuved outwad nimbus and coveed by light-blue glaze. Cylinde was established on to full suot, but at the esent time thee is no bottom of ink-ot because of the lost of suot.
The inteesting is fagment of bottom at of kese with inscitions made by ink. It is witten thee: “Mulla Kd …”, fom which it seems that the name of owne of kese was “Kudat” o “Kady”.
Numismatic mateial is esented by two tens of coins, found in the fillings of emises.
We can define six coins, one of which is silve, discoveed in one small it unde the laye of floo of the emise 9. Mostly the coins ae coe, of a bad safety. The foms of coins ae ound shaed, ellise shaed with cut edges. Silve coin is dated by the XVI c.94 Ceamic mateial, efeed to the time of decline of medese, was found in filling of deended squaes in font of the entances to the emises. Ceamics is esented mostly by glazed dish – bowls and dishes. Thee wee found seveal fagments of tagoa. The inteesting is imoted bowl fom the emise 12, suosedly, of Bukhaa oduction. The dish fom the laye is ainted by stylize hebal and geometical onament. Thee was combination of two tyes of onaments. Painting was done on the white and blue backgound fom the both sides.
Only bottoms ae not coveed by glaze. Bottoms ae disk shaed, slightly tuned inwad, with ing shaed edge. Ceamics of this tye is dated by the XVI–XVII cc.95 Chapter III Moslem Bath-houses A s it is known, in the easten town the bath-house layed the imotant lace in the ow of ublic constuctions. It was the most visit able lace afte the mosque. ''Bathhouse in the Caucasus, as well as in all East, is the subject of secial cae as town ule, and of woksho oganizations, and the seaate ich man, who aanges the bath-house fo himself and fo his fiends. Because the bath-house seves not only fo ablution, but fo inceasing stength, aise of mood, fo est, fo meeting and fiendly talk with fiends, fo meeting and talk about uchase and sale, about tade deal and fo showing skill in laying chess o nads''96. Bath-house was also the secific medical establishments. The docto of the IX–X cc. Zakaia a-Razi, descibing the influence of bath-house fo human body, ecommended decoating bath-houses by good ainting, which ecove fom melancholy, makes easie the difficulties97.
The numeous chaacteistics of bath-houses, descitions of bath eisodes, lists of the secific ules of visiting bath-houses ae the evidences of oulaity of bath-houses in the life of oulation98.
Bath-houses wee used also often fo medical uoses. Such bath-houses ae, fo examle, bath-houses of Ezuum, Bussa and Tbilisi, built above the theaeutic wate souces99. Teatise of the XI c., belonging to the hand of ibn Sina, contains the wide infomation about theaeutic dinks fo use in the bath-house100.
Poulaity of these establishments among town oulation was eally huge. Djelal Essad wote “Bath-houses ae necessay as fo all Moslems and fo the Mosque”101. It is known fo examle, that is Bagdad in the fist half of the X c. thee wee 10 thousands bathhouses102. Duing excavations in Afasiab on a small teitoy unde the lace of citadel thee wee oened five bath-houses, what let fo its tun to account suosedly the geneal numbe of bath-house comlexes. The amount of them was, obably, not less than sixty
bath-houses103. Quick sead of bath-houses in the medieval towns is defined by two factos:
cult and household legalization of Islam (buildings of “tahaathana” nea the big mosques with heated floos, cuola and ach ove lawings, used fo the itual lavabo “tahaat”), and also by wide use of bunt bicks.
The oblem on the time of foming of Chist shaed tyes of bath-houses is not solved having one meaning. V.L.Voonina suoses, that bath-houses built of bunt-bicks with Chapter III coss-shaed lanning, with stictly consequent system of connection of emises and gadation of thei temeatue egime aeaed also in Cental Asia, in the XIV c. afte the egion stated to ecove afte the destoy duing Mongol invasion104. But achaeological mateials ove thei ealiest aeaance – at the end of the XI–XII c. In the second half of the XIII c. and late, till the XIX c. bath-house wee being built, continuing achitectuallanning taditions, which wee fomed in the evious time105. Bath-houses of Kazakhstan town ae known by the mateials of excavations and one of them has been emained in Tukestan till cuent times and it functioned till the middle of the XX centuy.
Bath-houses wee of two tyes – ublic and ivate. The fist ones wee being built by ules and ich men and they wee given fo use to the citizens, as god sacificial, o fo getting ofits. Pivate bath-houses wee built unde big houses and alaces; they wee intended fo ules o ownes of ich houses, thei families, quests, sevants. They wee small.
Bath-houses wee built of bunt bick; thei emises wee ove laed by cuola.
Thee wee established bath fo washing; the walls wee decoated sometimes by wateoof aintings. Temeatue in the bath-houses was suoted by the system of heating, which is called hyocaust. It foesees the esence of unde floo sace, whee was ciculated hot ai.
It heated the floo, which was suoted on to the bick columns o walls.
Temeatue was egulated by the hel of vetical channels in walls. The wate was heated in the cauldons lasteed into the fie-chambe and it was taken fom thee by scoos o it was distibuted by secial eole. Sewage was going out by the system of kubus.
Bath-houses wee deeened into the eath, and they wee ut to the secial esevois, and cuolas wee built above the suface. So, the wamth was ket in the bath-houses106.
The first bath-house of Taraz was investigated by Semiechenskaya achaeological exedition headed by A.N.Benshtam in 1938 y.
The bath-house in lan is close to the quadangula (1413,3 m) and it is diected almost exactly to the sides of Univese. Oven-chambe with the souce of not wate was laced in the south-easten cone, and the entance gou of emises was located in the oosite, noth-westen at of building and it consisted of the quadangula vestibule and flanking it symmetical coidos. Thee is base to conside, that vestibule was ove laed not by cuola, but by the ach of fou mete ass and that the side massifs of walls with coidos layed the ole of countefoce’s, acceting the stength of ach.
Thee small ooms along the southen sides – two quadangula and vestibule with wide entance on the westen side fomed the isolated “section” of bath-house, – may be, fo honoable visitos.
Anothe gou of emises was oganized by two eendicula axes. On the axis nothsouth thee was situated the big vestibule and following afte it the quadangula (obably, cuola) oom in sizes 3,23,2 m with niches diected to all sides. Behind the vestibule was situated cuola oom, to the east fom it was the oom of the same sizes and also cuola shaed, but without niches and connected with the evious oom by the axis ass.
This chains of emises is closed in the east by small in sizes 2,12,1 m cuola oom, joining to the oven-chambe fom the Noth. Fudging by its location, it is not washing oom.
A big emise in the noth-easten cone locating on the geneal (longitudinal) axis with the nothen vestibule and side coidos seved, seemingly, like massage o wam washing-oom.
In one emise emained bick laying of floo, and in anothe emise was found bick “bath” – esevoi in sizes 17547 cm.
Entance to the bath-house is made in the nothen wall. It was going to a small oom with sits. Its walls wee decoated by ainting. This oom is connected with emises, whee Moslem Bath-houses situated the baths. In the walls of emises with baths thee wee situated the niches also filled by ainting. It was ut on the suface of lasteing, wate esistant one.
Onament of ainting on the walls is geometical and consists of octagonal yellow stas, contoued by black line and connected between each othe by ed cosses.
Othe elements of aintings ae octagonal made of combinations of ectangula of gey colo, contoued by ed and yellow hexagons. In the numeous fagments of lasteing felt fom ceiling, thee wee discoveed aintings and colos of some othe chaacte. Hee you can see hebal subjects in a fom of olonged leaves and stems, light blue and oanges tones of colos edominate.
In the obstuction of debis thee wee found the taces of laste decoations in a fom of gaved teacotta colos, obably, tulis with etals, going downwad.
Bath-house was heated by heated ai, ciculating in channels, established unde the floo and shelves.
Nea one of the bath achaeologists found the coins (dihems) made of low gade silve, which let to date ecisely the constuction and existence of the bath-house of the XI c.107 The second bath-house of Taraz was discoveed duing dig of foundation it fo constuction on bazaa squae of Taaz, located on the lace of citadel of site.
Bath-house was dig u atially, oven-chambe and fou emises wee evealed, and two of them wee dig u comletely. Thee emained oven-chambe, cistens fo exit of smoke and heat, established in the walls two wells and two lines of kubus fo exit of sewage wates. Ceamics let to date this bath-house by the XI–XII cc.
Bath-house of Aktobe emained atially. Its sizes ae 107 m. The walls of bath-house wee built of bunt bicks in sizes 37254,5-5 cm and 25254,5 cm. Thei emained height is 0,7-1,25 m.
At the nothen wall was situated two oven, whee emained the lace, whee stood the cauldon. Thee emained fagments of subfloo heating system – columns made of bunt bicks, between which ciculated the hot ai.
Along the easten wall was established the sewe-ie, by which wee going out sewage wates. The bath-house is dated by the X–XIII cc.108 Bath-house of Ekpendy is situated nea the site at the village Ekendy in 25 lm to the South of Shymkent in the lace of joint of Mountain Rives Buguluk and Dongistau.
Regettably, bath-house has not been excavated comletely yet.
Its easten at was evealed, whee was situated the emise fo washing and the at of cental hall with the emains of hyocaust – subfloo system of heating. Fudging by the ceamics, it functioned in the XI-XII cc.109 Otrar bath-house (northern) of the XI–XII cc. was situated in the noth-westen side of site, not fa fom the gates Dawas i-Sufi110.
Befoe excavations it was olonged oval fom hill in height about 4m. Thee was situated fom the late XV c. the cemetey: buial vaults wee situated in seveal stages and the latest ones wee situated unde the tuf laye, the ealiest wee on the deth u to 2,5 m.
The vaults wee fomed of gey and yellow aw bicks and also built of bunt bicks and its boken taken fom the constuction of bath-house. The walls of bath-house, floo wee being destoyed and in latest time, when bicks wee used unde constuctions of houses of the XVI–XVIII cc.
Entance to the bath-house was situated in the south-westen faade wall with the entance to the emise 1 in squae 6,8m2 fom which emained laye in the nothen cone and fagments of the nothen wall. Fom the cental hall in squae 12,6 m2, which layed the Chapter III ole of heat and massage oom thee ae emains of walls evealed only in the noth-easten cone the est walls wee econstucted by the stams of bicks. Two emises of cental hall in squae each by 7,8 m2, seemingly layed the ole massage and steam ooms. In the emise 4 bick lying emained in the westen wall by sections (then u to the cone it is obseved by the emains of bicks) and at the noth-easten cone. Contou of emise #7 wee defined by the ints of bicks and lying, emained on the naow section of the nothen wall.
The emises ## 5, 8 and 6 having the equal squae, intended, moe likely, fo washing, and they wee connected with neighboing emises by the elatively naow asses, what heled to kee the definite temeatue egime. In the emise 5 in squae 7,1 m2 the laying emained on the section of westen wall, joining to the south-westen cone and in the easten wall, connected by the cone with section of the southen wall. The est sections of walls wee econstucted by the ints of bicks. In the emise 8 in squae 6,7 m2 emained the laying of the naow (0,35 m) entance in the south-westen cone of emise. The emise 6, wall-emained in squae 5 m2 had only sections of comletely destoyed walls, joining to the noth-easten cone. The ass in the nothen wall at the noth-westen cone connected the emises 6 and 7.
Pemise #2 has squae 14 m2 and seemingly it was intended fo est and it was econstucted by laying of the southen wall emained fo length about 2,5 m. Laying of the easten wall emained on the same length and then it was successful to obseve it by ints.
The westen wall was also econstucted by ints.
Pemise ##8a and 9 in that comlex wee the subsidiay ones and thee wee laced esevois with wate fo washing which ae not emained. It was successful to econstuct lan by the seaate sections of wall lying: at the inne wall between emises ##8 and 8a, in the cones and in the egion of fie-chambe in the easten wall, in the south-easten cone of emise #9. Thee was obseved only mete section with ints of bicks fom the wall, seaating emises ## 8a and 8.
Pemises joint to the building of bath-house fom the nothen side. Thei walls ae also bunt of bunt bicks, but it is difficult to find out the intention of these emises by the available fagments of constuctions. We not only, that fom the nothen wall of bath-house unde the staight angle ae going out two at of laying: one in length 2,4 m in the egion of noth-easten cone of emise 1, anothe one – in length 0,2 m fom the noth-easten cone. Diection of emained 11-mete at of wall is almost the same as the nothen wall of bath-house.
Bath-house comlex included also the ow of constuction. Thee was included emise 13 (2,36,9 m), situated at the south-easten cone. The long wall followed the diection of the easten wall of bath-house. Right thee in the nothen half was discoveed the well in diamete 0,85 m.
The constuction made of ow bicks, joining to it fom the south, diected fom West to East (with some decline to the Noth) is also connected with bath-house. The long wall of constuction unde the acute angle was close to the southen wall of bath-house, and in the egion of emise #9 they joint each othe. Safety of the main at of constuction is elatively good and the most destoyed ae cone ats of laying (at the exclusion of the south-easten cone).
To the emise #10 (in lan it is taeze shaed, length of walls – 4,3; 9,8; 8,7 m) wee going two entances – in the southen and westen walls, which wee situated in southwesten cone. The sace fom the westen entance u to the noth-westen cone was occuied by the sufa. To the ight side fom the southen entance u to the cone it was Moslem Bath-houses also situated sufa, its ue at was done of bunt quadangula and ectangula bicks, the westen at was destoyed. In the noth-easten cone of oom 10 was 0,92 dee ool, with the bottom and walls, aved with ieces of slay taken fom fiing ottey kiln. West of the basin in the aea bounded by sufas, swimming ool and the nothen wall, thee is (cicula in lan) stand in diamete 14,5 m.
Pesevation of the oom’s walls with an aea of 25,1 m2, is good and the southen walls ises to 0,9 m, the nothen – 0,8 m. The inteio was destoyed – the easten wall – eseved to a height 0,07-0,1, westen – 0,27 m.
The entances to the easten wall of the oom connect it to the lacement aea of 16,7 m2.
The southen and nothen walls ise to 0,65-0,66 m, the height of the easten – to 0,41 m.
At the easten cone stood two khums, dug into the easten wall, and the tandy with diamete of 0,45 m, adjacent to the south. In the south-west cone of almost equal distance fom the walls (0,85 and 0,9 m) was discoveed tagoa, located at an elevation of 0,13 m. At the nothen wall was a well in diamete 0,75 m, whose walls lined with bunt bicks. Wate fom the well could be sulied to the emises 5 and 6, located fom it at the same distance.
Finally, the thid oom 12 of the descibed stuctues (in lan ectangula aea of 5,5 m2) and it had the entance to the south-west cone. At the nothen wall at a distance 0,85 m fom the noth-east cone thee wee discoveed two dug into the floo khums. It is likely that this bath located next to the building is a ind of laundy.
It can be assumed, that wate fom the well in the oom 13 to a tough was oued into the tank at the easten wall of the oom 8a and 9. Hence it was taken, aaently though the windows of building 6, 7 and 8. Pehas into the oom 5 and 6 wate was sulied fom the southen shaft.
Dity wate was taken out by the kubus system, which site is oened in the oom 9 and by the kubus line wate was deduced into the ditch.
The funace bath was going outside the building and it was a ound oven lined with bunt bicks. The same mateials lined the bottom of the fiing chambe with diamete of 1,5 m at the height of 0,55 m. The fiing whole width was 0,36 m in the easten at. It adjoins to the cicula aea in diamete 4 m, the level of which deeened fo 1 m elatively to the level of heating chambe. In the westen at of oven thee was stated the main channel of heat line, fomed of bun bicks and it assed though all building fom the East to the West.
Going fo fom fie chambe it becomes naowe: at the beginning its width was equal to 0,6 m, though the section 1,9-0,4 m and edge westen section – only 0,2 m. Thee emained the easten section of channel in length 3,65 m, the est ones 2,5 m wee econstucted by the ints of bicks.
Sections of heat channel banches ae not saved, and it is doubtless, that the at of emises was heated with hel of subfloo system of channels, and the othes – by fee ciculation of ai unde the floo, which in that emises stood of “columns” made of bunt bicks. Only the seaate “columns” and fagments of tanches unde the emises 1, 8a, 9 emained fom subfloo system of heating. The device fo fee ciculation of hot ai is seen in the emises 3 and 8 in location of columns.
Duing excavations thee was found the ceamics, including glazed one (bowls, lates, chi agas) efeed to the XI–XII cc. The secific is found on the floo of emise 12 bonze edestals fo lam, made in the fom of hexagon, ectangula sides of which on to and down wee fastened by ectangula lates. Side lates ae decoated by caved onament in a fom of coss shaed gouge.
The coins, as well as ceamics, confim dating of bath-house – XI–XII cc.
Chapter III Bath-house of Otrar (southern) XI–XII cc. was situated on the teitoy of southen abad. As it’s aeaed, it was situated unde the bath-house of the XIII–XV cc. Since the main at of bath-house is going unde the comlex of latest constuction, only its south-easten at has been excavated, including fie-chambe and system of cistens fo hot wate.
Heating device in sizes 230,8 m is esented by a cisten, connected by a channel in diamete 0,5 cm with smalle cisten (0,60,60,8 m). Ceamic ca is eseved which closed connection of cistens. Month of ion cauldon was lasteed into the cente of heating system cisten: its bottom and walls wee lasteed fo its tun into the fie-chambe. So, the cauldon seved the secific “heating element”: hot wate then was going to the bath and it was taken out fom thee and it was used fo washing. Bottom and walls of cisten and bath wee fomed of quadangula bunt bicks and they wee lasteed by seveal laye of wateoof infusion (ky) in thickness u to 5 cm.
Among the collected ceamics edominate bath (tagoa) with staight walls and modeled handles. Thee wee found moe than thee tens of whole and fagments of sheical cones, seved fo tansotation and esevation of theaeutic mecuy medicines. The inteesting is the bonze edestal in a fom of animal aws. Such edestals ae known in the mateials of the X–XII cc. fom Cental Asia. Duing excavations thee wee found Kaakhanidian coins of the XI–XII cc, which unde comaison with othe coins comlexes can date the bath-house by the XI–XII cc.
Excavations showed that on the uins of that bath-house in the latest times, in the XIII c.
was built the new bath-house comlex.
Bath-house of Otrar of the XIII–XIV cc. In the mico elief of subub at wee seen clealy the numeous hillocks. In diection of one of them was going the banch of undegound channel with the installed thei wate ies. Wate ie was situated in font of the southen decline of hill111. At the same lace wee situated two its, fom whee local eole took bunt bicks. The ue layes of constuction on to the deth u to 1,5 m had been destoyed by Moslem buials. The noth-easten diection, olonged osition of buied, absence of things, aw bick let to conside, that excavated at of abid stated to be used unde the cemetey aleady in the XVI c. The buials destoyed the cultual laye, so it is not ossible to date ecisely the emains of building constuctions and to get about them the whole imagination.
Close to the south-easten cone of excavation on the deth 0,7 m thee wee cleaned out fie-chambe cameas of two ottey’s ovens. Small amount of ceamics wee found in thei fillings. Among fagments of glazed ceamics dominate the bowls, coveed by yellow, light-bown, dak-bown and geen glaze. Unglazed ceamics is esented by naow-necked
jugs, basins, tagoa, ots. It was also discoveed some fagments of achitectual decoation:
tiles, coveed, by light blue glaze and caved teacotta with blue glaze. Some coe coins of a bad safety wee discoveed.
In the same excavation on the deth 1,5 m fom the day suface wee evealed the emains of bath-house, consisted of seveal emises, fie-chambes, some esevois fo wate and system of subfloo heating. Unfotunately the bath-house was almost destoyed comletely. It began to be destoyed, aaently, aleady in the XVI c. The bunt bicks taken fom ealy it was used futhe in dwelling and household constuction was used in all buildings on the cental hill of site.
Desite the fact, that fom the bath-house emained only system of heating, ieces of walls, fagments of floo aving, its total lanning ae evealed athe clealy by the level of low (second) building hoizon.
Moslem Bath-houses This is monumental constuction, cucifom in lan. Its size by outwad edge is 1715,5 m. The entance was situated in the south-easten wall fom the side of southen gates of Ota. On the distance 5 m fom it in the easten diection thee was going the oad made of ectangula bunt bicks (22114 cm) made in atten of weaving.
To the ight side fom the entance was situated comlex of bath house itself; to the left side wee a yad and 10 emises112.
Pemise # 1 (13,1 m2) seved like dessing-oom. Thee eole left thei undeshit clothing and got a loincloth called lyuingi. In Cental Asia such emises wee called lyuingikhana113.
Cental octagonal hall of bath-house, as eveywhee in the easten bath-houses, seved like steam and massage oom, usually in its cente, in the niches, at the walls wee established sufas fo massage. We can suose esence of sufas in Ota bath-house. Squae of hall is about 22 m2.
Pemises #4 and #8 in squae 7,2 m2 each seved like benjuaes.
Fom the cental hall ae oened the entances to the emises ##5, 6, 7 fo washing.
Temeatue in washing ooms was diffeent: the hottest ones wee called issyk-khana (hot), less hot – sauk-khana (cold). Gadation of temeatues in the emises is eculiaity of the easten bath-houses. Ibn Sina wote about the bath-houses: “The fist oom cools and densest, the second one heat and dense, the thid one heats and dies”114. The quality and lacement of emises fo washing is vaious: fo examle, one is hot and two cool emises, o on the contay; sometimes one hot oom is in the cente, and cool ooms ae on the edges, o two hot ooms ae close to each othe and cool oom is on the edge, but, as the ule, thee wee thee washing ooms115. In the Ota bath-house thee wee two hot emises 5 and 6 (squae of each is 7,2 m2). They wee situated close to each othe: one was in the westen cone, anothe one – in the cente, at the same time cool ooms was in the easten cone.
It is oved by its location in egad to fie-chambe and then unde the floos of othe emises.
In the emise #7 in squae 15 m2 the at of floo in the nothen cone was coveed by glazed bicks in sizes 26265 and 26145 cm. Swastika shaed white atten was done one blue backgound of aving by diagonal. Squae of aving is 1,2 m2.
Pemises fo washing wee connected though the assed with emise 10 in squae 20 m2, whee wee situated cauldon fo hot wate, two tanks fo cold wate and fou small tanks.
Fie-chambe was ut out the emise and it was situated staight behind the wall at the easten cone. It looks like the cone shaed it in deth 1,17 m, with diamete on to 0,8 m, down – 1,3 m. The mouth in sizes 0,70,7 m is situated on the level of base. The to of chambe, aaently, was closed by clay cove.
Fom fie-chambe was going heat wie. At the beginning it heated ion cauldon, fom which emained ieces of sides and nest in diamete 0,85 m made of bunt bicks. Cauldon was lasteed into the base of tank, which is not emained. Two tanks fo cold wate wee situated nea hot wate tank. They ae situated along the cente of emise and esents divided by the wall esevoi in size 2,72 m by outwad cicle.
The walls of tank and fence ae made of bunt bicks (28285 cm) ut on ibbon, fixed and lasteed by wateoof infusion – ky. Thickness of wall is in fo bicks, the emained height is 0,3 m. In case of suosition, that the height of tank walls was 0,9 m (unde the biggest height it could be not convenient to take wate fom tank), the geneal volume of cold wate in the bath-house could be 6 m3.
Chapter III Fou tanks fo wate wee situated at the wall in the nothen cone. Actually, it was one esevoi, divided fo sections in length 0,5 m, width 0,4 m and height u to 0,3 m each. The walls of esevoi ae fomed of bunt bicks in sizes 28285 cm and they ae lasteed fom all sides by ky. Thei obvious similaity with esevois of Afasiab bath-house of the IX c.
and Nissian bath-house of the XII c. let to define the intention of esevois116. The analogous esevois ae noted also in the medieval bath-houses of Khesones117. G.A.Pugachenkova suoses that simila esevois contained alkaline solution and aoma extacts. Its quiet likely if to take into account that Ibn Sina, descibing the influence of bath to the human body, mentioned some infusions used fo washing. Some of them wee eaed by boiling of some lants, ash sulhu. Also wee used ion, salt, quats and vitiol solutions of osehi teas, beies and lauel.
Pemise #9 in squae 20 m2 was used fo hygienic ocedues. Thei visitos made the ocedues on deilation and the othes.
In the easten bath-houses, as the ule, wee foeseen the laces fo namaz ay.
Sometimes fo this uose was used one of the loggias of cental hall, diected to the southwest. Thee was established usually the mikhab118. In the Ota bath-house the ole of ay hall was layed, most likely, by emise 2 in squae 10,8 m2, connected with cental hall. Its floo is coveed by blue colo tiles of diffeent sizes, on ky. Tile aving emained only in the nothen at of oom. In its cente was situated the cicle in diamete 0,8 m, deeened fo 5-6 cm. Thei edges ae coveed by blue tiles. Ceamic ie in diamete 10 cm, connected with subfloo system of heating was established to the hole in the middle of cicle. Consequently, the oom fo namaz was heated by dy hot ai.
System of heating, wate suly and seweage in the Ota bath-house was following: