Ђћ≈∆ƒ”Ќј–ќƒЌџ… »Ќ—“»“”“ ÷≈Ќ“–јЋ№Ќќј«»ј“— »’ »——Ћ≈ƒќ¬јЌ»… ј«ј’—“јЌ— ќ≈ ј–’≈ќЋќ√»„≈— ќ≈ ќЅў≈—“¬ќ .ћ. Ѕј…ѕј ќ¬ »—Ћјћ— јя ј–’≈ќЋќ√»„≈— јя ј–’»“≈ “”–ј » ј–’≈ќЋќ√»я ј«ј’—“јЌј ...ї
wate came to the bath-house by wate ies made of clay wate ies, established in undegound of tunnel. The emains of some wate ie lines ae fixed in tunnel itself and in the lace of talking wate on the bottom of wate esevoi. Wate ie system existed in the XЦXV cc. Wate was heated by the hel of cauldon, lasteed into the bottom of tank.
Cauldon, filled by wate was the main Уheating elementФ wate did not come to the ooms by the system of ies, but it was sulied though the secial aetues in the wall, which seaates washing ooms fom the emises with tanks.
Seweage wate was going to the channels is wall and then to the absobing wells.
One of such channels was discoveed in the wall of emise 9. It is coveed by bunt bicks and it is connected with ayk, by which wate was going to the absobing well in diamete 1 m. The last one, cleaned out on the deth 2 m, is filled by fiable, lum shaed gound of geenish colo. Ota bath-house was heated by one fie-chambe situated outside, closed by tent.
Unde the floo of bath-house thee was established system of heating channels. One channel fom fie-chambe assed unde the floo and bought the heat to the heating system of the emise 5 though the hole in diamete 20 cm. Heating system channel was going by thee main diections, which wee divided unde the staight angle in the cente of subfloo sace. One was going to the emises #4 and #2, anothe one Ц to the emise #6 and #7.
The fist channel has the width 0,5 m, and the second one Ц 0,4 m. Channels ae ectangula in cut and they ae fomed of bunt bick, ut lain in one line by seveal ows.
So, the thickness of fowading baies deended on the shae of bick.
The main channels had double ove laing of two ut unde decline bicks. Section of such channel in length 0,5 m has been eseved.
Moslem Bath-houses Heating channel connected emise 5 with cental hall. To the same lace was sulied the main heat fom subfloo of emise 4. And system of fowading baies was established so, that heat was diected to the cente by six channels. In subfloo of emise 4 thee stood 8 baies, each 2 in fou ode. Bick baies, situated at the outwad edge, had the length 0,5 and 1,7 m.
Fom the subfloo of emise #4 the heat was sulied to the emise #2 by ies, one of which was going to the cente of emise. In subfloo of emise 6 the heat was sulied fom channel, going fom subfloo of emise 5. Six baies, ut by thee in two odes, established the system of seven channels. Shot baies had the length 0,5 m, the long ones Ц 1,3 m.
Pemise #7 was heated by the heat, which was going by the main channel though subfloo of emise #6. The heat was ciculated feely between the columns. Thee wee 24 columns and each of them was fomed by bicks.
Cental hall was also heated by hel of fee ciculation of heat between the columns.
Thee wee also heating baies in length 0,5 m. Two of six baies ae situated in the cente of subfloo.
Pemise #9, aaently, as well as emise #2, was heated by hel of ies.
Temeatue in the bath-house was egulated by the way of oening of closing of vetical flues made in thickness of outwad walls. In Ota bath-house wee discoveed thee flues in the middle ats of the noth-westen and south-easten walls.
Achitectual view of the Ota bath-house can be econstucted only by comae sow of lan and the emains of its constuctions with othe medieval easten bath-house.
Most likely, that fom outwad was situated the gou of 9 cuolas, including cuola of cental hall, giving to all constuction the chaacteistic view. Pobably, they ove laed all emises, excet one, whee wee situated cistens fo wate. Cental emises and middle hall wee ove laed; aaently, by ing shaed cuolas, and cone ones Ц by УbalhiФ cuolas.
The floos wee ut by lates of bunt bicks in sizes 404010 cm. In the cental hall they, most likely, wee glazed ones. By the emains of aving, the floos in the emises 2 and 7 wee coveed by blue and white Ц blue glazes.
Two building eiods ae distinguished clealy in the bath-house existence. At the beginning it had the sizes 13,516,5 m, and all emises, at the excetion of cental one, wee equal by its squae Ц 7,2 m2.
The second eiod is chaacteized by some econstuctions. Outwad south-easten bath was ut away fo 2 m, and south-westen Ц fo 1,5 m. Consequently squaes of emises ##1, 2, 7 and 9 had been inceased Ц u to 13, 10, 8, 15 and 20 m2. The floo of the emise 2 was coveed by glazed bicks above simle bick aving of quadangula lates in sizes 404010 cm.
Subfloo of emise 7 was isolated fom heating system. The main heating channel was closed densely by bunt bicks. Consequently, aaently, the intension of washing ooms had been changed. Initially emises 5 and 6 seved like hot washing ooms, and 7 Ц УcoldФ.
Now the emise 5 emained hot washing oom, and 6 become УcoldФ washing oom. The widened oom 7, aaently, became the lace fo est. Its floo was ut by olychomic glazed lates, fomic geometical atten. The changes haened also in the inteio of emise 9: in its cente wee situated the oened swimming ool and squae fo leg washing and along the walls wee established sufas.
Such lanning, destoyed by talking of bicks and the latest buials, had been eseved to the moment of excavations.
Chapter III Ceamic mateial of bath-house is mixed stongly and can not be divided fo chonological comlexes, connected with two building hoizons. Unglazed ceamics is esented by the ieces of khums, tagoa, jags, and mugs. Ceamics of easel wok diffes by standadization of the tyes of dish and onamentation.
Glazed ceamics is esented by bowls of tyes, like kese, bowls, and chiags. Thee is dish, coveed by tansaent glaze above white angob and aintings of ed and black colos.
Red, yellow and geen glazes ae chaacteistic fo a big gou of ceamics. Ceamics with yellow glaze above light angob is ainted by geen and bown, dak bown and bown colos.
Motives of onament ae geometical; its locations ae meidian shaed and ay shaed fom the cente of bowl.
Ceamics coveed by dak-geen glaze and sub glaze ainting was sead. Outwad u to the middle of body the bowls ae ainted by bown colos. Thee was dish coveed fom one side by geen colo and fom anothe side by yellow glaze.
The big gou of ceamics is coveed by tansaent glaze above dak ed and bown angob. Onament was hebal, geometical o combining that o anothe elements. Such ceamics is chaacteistic fo the XIIIЦXIV cc119.
Anothe gou is chaacteized by blue o dak blue glaze, ainting by blue black colo.
Paintings ae of hebal o geometical lan. Such ceamics was sead in the Ota XIV Ц ealy XV c.
The attactive is the bowl, coveed fom the both sides by dak-blue glaze ainting. It has lain walls and cuved unde staight angle edge, ing shaed bottom. Diamete of dish is 27 cm. On the inne side thee is onament, made by dak-violet ainting. In the cente was ictued eight Ц etal osette with eight adial lines going out. Each of eight sectos is filled by fine hebal souts and big flowes, famed by tiangles and sties. All comosition is closed into cicle, fomed by double line. Then thee ae going two sties, in one of them was the inscition and othe one contains onament of stylized Aab lettes in eseve.
The inscition is done by talik scit of ealy vaiety. Influence of scit suls is noted, widely sead in the second half of the XIV Ц ealy XV c. Poduction of bowl can be efeed to that time by ow of featues of scit.
Text on dish is tanslated as follows:
All you deals come tue by you wish The God is otecto of you thone ЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕЕ Evening comes. You ae my lovely in the woldЕ Moe than half of bowl is lost and so it is difficult to say which of beits (coulets) the fist was. By the style oems esent folkloe good inscition (I beit) and love lyics (II beit), obably, in sufian lan, identifying the lovely with the Cod. The language is alive, colloquial, but achaic, what is chaacteistic fo folkloe. Small quantity of Aab adotions tells, aaently, about moe ancient oigin of oems120. Duing excavation of bath-house thee wee found 22 coe coins of bad esevation. It was not successful to define two coins the othes ae distibuted, as follows: to the XIIIЦXIV cc. ae efeed 13 coins, two of them, obably, belong to the coinage of Sygnak of the XIV c., anothe ones wee coin aged in Ota in the second half of the XIIIЦXIV cc., in Bukhaa, Almalyk in the XIIIЦXIV cc.
Coinage of two coins can be efeed to the XIVЦXV cc., coinage of fou ones Ц to the XVIЦXVIII cc. One coin, suosedly, is dated by the XII c.
Moslem Bath-houses So, ceamic and numismatic mateial let to eefe the time of building and functioning of bath-house to the second half of XIIIЦXIV c. Aaently, at the beginning of the XV 151c.
bath-house was destoyed, and its lace aeaed constuctions and ottey ovens. In the XVIЦXVIII cc. that at of town was occuied by the cemetey.
Kayalyk bath-house befoe excavations was ectangula in lan hill in squae moe than 900 m2 u to 2-2,3 m. Wall laye of bunt bicks was discoveed on the level 50 cm fom the moden day suface of УhammamФ tye was evealed duing futue eseaches.
In lan bath-house is ectangula in sizes 11,368,9 m, consisted of eight emises, situated aound the cental hall, and also the entance in a fom of tambou in the easten at.
Fo emises ae connected with cental hall by wide asses, foming coss shaed lanning.
Thee emises ae connected with cental hall by naow asses, cut its cones. The nothen outwad at of emises, У√Ф- shaed bodeed fom the southen and a westen wall by the walls of constuction was, aaently, occuied by aiwan. Findings on its teitoy of khums with holes in its low at, obably, could be the evidence of dinking wine, and the yad Ц aiwan itself is the lace of est afte bath ocedues. Thee axes of constuction ceate feeling of balance. In the middle axis ae laced the cental hall and two washing ooms. In the nothen washing oom was established the bath. The easten axis consists of thee emises: tambou shaed entance, emise, fo leg washing and washing ooms with gacious bath, seaated by not high boad and ach aetue. Thee emises ae built by the easten axis: two soa bath and the technical emise with ound shaed cisten fo wate heating. The westen wall of noth-easten wall of the technical emise is destoyed stongly, what is indiect evidence, of emise of window Ц aetue fo talking wate.
The fist emise of the bath-house is cental entance situated in the easten at of constuction. It is tambou shaed coido in sizes 2,240,8 m, olonged along the southeasten wall of emise #1. The coido is stated fom the ladde made of one ow of bicks in sizes 26-26,526-26,54,5 cm ut in thee layes. The height of ste is 15 cm. Fom the coido though the ass with 0,9 m it was ossible to ente emise #1 in sizes 2,82,1 m with the established in the nothen at small, but athe dee (0,4 m) bath (10,5 m). It was the hygienic emise. Naow ass fom it in the westen cone was going to the cental hall #5 in sizes 3,33,7 m. Entances fom the cental hall ae oened to all emises of comlex.
The nothen cone emained the low at of ach Ц the constuctive element fo cuola in cental hall. The bases of ach ae suoted by the body of wall section, making the entances to the emises 5 and 7. Section of floo lying, situated unde the ach, is fomed by a ste is height 5 cm is one bick. Usually the toms like sub cuola constuction wee not used in the building of bath-houses, because they blocked constuction in walls of high and big niches, wee sufas wee situated121.
To the massage emise #2 (2,192,13 m) was going the wide entance (1,41 m); to the УtechnicalФ emise #3 (2,82,7 m) with cisten fo wate heating, was going the naow ass in width 0,5 m; to the emise #6 was going the ass in width 1,44 m. In washing oom #6 was situated the bath in sizes 2,060,5 m and deth 0,30,45 m. In washing oom #4 (2,731,75 m) with ass in width 1,33 m was situated the bath in sizes 1,750,7 m and deth (0,30,45 m). Two soa oomТs #7 and #8 with. Bath of big sizes was situated in the noth-westen side fom the cental hall. The sizes of oom #7 ae 3,52,2 m and #8 Ц 3,692,75 m.
Pemises of bath-house wee ove laed by two means usually Ц cuolas and aches of УbalhiФ tye. Imotance of emises was undelined by building above them of cuolas, Chapter III suoted, as the ule, by УbagaliФ constuction ones o the system of shield sail УgadjakФ.
Cuola of the main hall, hammam of Kayalyk, which had in lan the ectangula fom, was suoted, aaently, to the system of sheical sail УbagaliФ, which let to ente the cuola fom any configuation of hall. The sails wee ut on to the ach aetues of entances. Not high cuola was built fo the maximum keeing of wamth. By moe simle by its foms УbalhiФ aches fom fou cones to the middle, aticulaly wee ove laed less imotant emises, aticulaly, technical. Naow asses often wee ove laed by semi cicula ach o small ach.
The obligatoy element of hammam bath-house, like dessing oom, was not discoveed.
The main function of naow entance coido, most likely, was wamth isolation.
Cuently it is not known, is this at the heated at of bath-house o not.
Five emises have diffeent size bath constuctions, established in thei nothen at.
Two emises ae inteeted like УhotФ, two УcoolФ and one УhygienicФ One emise by its functional intention is УtechnicalФ one, two, not having bath constuctions, Ц massage ones.
The fist ooms of comlex wee, suosedly, fo dessing and evious hygienic ocedues. This emise with not high temeatue had dee, but not big size bath, fo the initial washings of legs and body. Simila emises wee called Уthe fist and second ooms fo leg washingФ122.
This oom was established befoe the entance to the cental hall, including the functions of steam and massage ooms.
The analogous functions had also emise #2, joint to the cental hall.
In the УtechnicalФ emise #3 was situated the cisten fo wate heating, fom whee eole could take the heated wate and bing to the equied laces. Two washing oomТs #4 and #6 had aveage size baths, and washing oomТs #7 and #8 Ц big ones: they wee ooms fo washing. In such emises the temeatue was diffeent: they wee divided fo cold ooms and hot ooms123. In esent case it is ossible to inteet the emise #8, like hot emise, as fie-chambe is situated fom outwad (westen) side of this emise, and the naow ass to washing oom is the evidence of the additional measue, the diected to suot high temeatue.
As it is noted above, in five emises of bath comlex of eight existed ones, wee situated the baths Ц cistens of ectangula fom fo washing.
The walls of all baths outwad wee lasteed by thin laye of wateoof ky (u to 1,5 cm) of white colo. Method of ky oduction is athe simle. So, V.L.Voonina infoms on the inteesting eceit given by Tashkent maste: УSelected lime and ash of moass cane kyiok mixed and the last one is 1/4 o 1/3 of volume.Ф Ash of kyiok is taken fom leathe hand caftsmen, which used it in thei oduction. Mixtue should be mixed vey well and it should be ut into cauldon, mixed with wate and down of moass caneТs tuzgoh cones.
Then should be added eggs: 20-30 ieces fo cauldon. Then it is ecommended to add into infusion the gades teacle shinni (half basket, basket). Pocess of lasteing is being continued seveal days: ky, becoming fim, is cut; then it should be sayed by mixtue of wate with teacle (u to comlete filling) and it should be olished by lain stone Ц the method identical to ioning of cemented sufaces124.
We can suose, that faade at of each bath had gacious ach aetue. This conclusion is based on the fact, that the bath constuctions of the emises ##4, 7, 8 ket the bases and УfeetТsФ of aches, can be called suely, taking into account thei fom, like ound shaed.
Faade at of baths, situated in the emises ##1, 6 ae destoyed and at esent time we Moslem Bath-houses can say only hyothetically about the existence of ach aetues in these laces. The walls of baths ae the main walls of constuction.
The inteesting is fact, that inne wall of bath in the emise #1 in low at is УstengthenedФ additionally by thee big bicks in sizes 39-4039-404,5-5 cm, ut vetically with laye of ky on to.
Each of the descibed cistens had the УboadФ Ц the all, Уfomed in bickФ, defining the bode of bath. It is necessay to note, that these walls ae not connected with the main walls, but they ae only joint with them. Connecting seam was lasteed by clay infusion, the same, which was used fo buildings of all bath-house. The boads of baths in the emises ##1, 4, 6, 7 ae made of seveal ows of bicks (eseved ae constuctions u to 7 ows). The bath in emise #8 was maked by the boad ut in one bick in thickness 26-26,526-26,54,5 cm.
The boads of bath constuctions in washing oomТs ##4, 7, 8 wee situated fom the bath sides and they wee ended by the bases of aches, esenting itself the laye in one ow bicks ut lain. So, the ach aetues had the width 26-26,5 cm. The feetТs of ach aetues ae stated fom 0,4 m fom the level of bathТs floo. The constuctive eculiaities of ach element of emise #1 and #6 ae in thei smalle width Ц 13-13,5 cm, as they ae made of the bick analogous by sizes the boad of bath.
Cental inne at of all baths, coveed by laye of ky, is destoyed stongly, and the bath in the emise #6 eseved the taces of la-obe of ound shaed fom. Suosedly, sink constuctions existed in that constuctions.
Bath cistens can be divided fo thee gous by the volume of bath cistens.
Baths of big sizes (2,12,25 m, deth 0,45 m) Ц 2 ieces, they wee situated in the emises ##7 and 8. Two baths of oveage sizes: 2,060,5 m deth 0,4 m wee situated in a emise #6; 1,750,7 m, deth 0,45 m Ц in the emise #4. One small bath in sizes 1,00,5 m deth 0,45 m was cleaed in the emise #1. It is necessay to note, that the level of bathТs bottom was situated lowe fo 0,2 m than the bathТs floo, floo aved by lates.
Massages wee one of the bath ocedues125. УMethod of washing is extemely stange:
you lay in all height, you ae ubbed by hai bush, scatched, beaded, boken and all these efesh you body vey muchФ126.
Sub floo system of heating hyocaust is the bightest featue both of Rome thems and easten hammams. In the Rome bath-houses the hot ai fom fie-chambe ciculated feely between the columns, whee was built the floo, and the heat was sulied usually to hammams by heat channels. Thee wee no heat channels in the walls of bath-house.
The ubbeТs tench destoyed the wall and floo between the emises #7 and #8, in the esult of which aeaed the ossibility to study the system of heating of the above mentioned constuctions, not taking off the floo lates.
The base of all system of bathТs heating was the loess steile laye of whitish shade, what was, aaently, the esult of high temeatue. The next level, which layed the ole of base in the laces of building of base Ц columns, they ae stones (bouldes and ebbles), deeened into loess deosits. The columns of the ectangula fom in height about 0,45 m fomed of bunt bicks, wee in thei tun, the base fo building of heat channels. Channels ae made of thee lates, two of them wee ut vetically, aallel to each othe, and the thid one was ut on them hoizontally. Channels ae situated in two levels Ц in chess ode. The width of bicks with laye of loam with lime and ashes (?) with caacity u to 7 cm unde the floo late. The laye layed moistue isolation functions. Close location of heat channels in egad to the floo in the ossible evidence of definition of this washing oom, like the hot emise.
Chapter III In the emise #8 the low level was also the loess level of whitish shade, what oves the high temeatue. The second laye Ц base of not high base Ц columns wee stones (bouldes and ebbles). The thid level ae columns of sub ectangula fom in height 0,23-0,25 m.
Thee bases of thee ows of bicks had diffeent width. The laye in two bicks had the width 0,55-0,58 m, and laye in one bick had the width 0,26 m. System of heating channels laid on the base Ц columns. Channels had sub tiangle fom. They ae made of two lates ut unde decline one to each othe. System of hoizontal bick laying aised above channels on height in one ow (4-4,5 cm) was obseved between channels. The next level is the dense laye of cast loam white colo in caacity 0,15 m unde the laye of gey loam with ash in thickness 0,06 m, aaently, which layed the functions of wamth and moistue isolato. The laye of white ky (3 cm) with lasteed floo lates was otected by hyocaustic. Such comound system of device, and distance of heating channels (about 50 cm) fom floo level, is the evidence of closeness of fie-chambe camea. These measues wee intended fo otection of feetТs fom bun. And the naow ass going to this emise and closeness to the fie chambe is the doubtless fact, that this is hottest emise of the whole bath comlex.
The excavated comlex was eseached not comletely and so oblem on location of fie-chambe is oened, while it can be suosed, that the discoveed aetue in width 0,98 m in the outwad wall of emise #8 is the destoyed heating oifice. The suosition is based on the fact, that aetue is situated lowe, than the level of bathТs floo, coveed by lates. Constuction of oven month fo heating of sub floo is descibed, by Wituviy: УSub floos unde the hot bath ae done as follows: fist of all the floos ae ut by one and half feet bicks in decline to sub floo oven so, that it could go down itself to the oven month and then the heat will be sead easily unde flooФ127. Descibing the baths of Amenia, O.Kh.Khalahchian says, that the floo of heating emise became lowe in comaison with geneal level of floo128. This infomation confims, that technically fie-chambe itself was established lowe, than hyocaustic, what chaacteistic, fo the descibing situation.
Secondly, nea the aetue was discoveed a big concentation of ash Ц the evidence of use of full fo heating the bath. It is not clea the establishment of cisten fo wate heating in the oosite end comlex (emise #3). Fie-chambe in bath-comlexes in the othe egions was situated diectly unde the cisten fo wate heating.
The baths wee heated by local fuel: kizyak, bushwood, staw and wood. Cleaning of heating channels was the deal athe difficult: fo emoving ash and lightening of asses sometimes wee taken off the lates of floo. Such ocedue had been done two Ц thee times a yea.
Fo detailed claification of the constuctive eculiaities of walls, esence o absence of base, claification of day suface level along outwad S-W wall was ut the investigational shaft level along outwad S-W wall was ut the investigational shaft #2 eaching the eath (steile) laye.
Exactly that shaft showed that fo constuction of bath was dig u the foundation it and the walls wee built. So, on the suface of S-W wall fom side is well Ц eadable some levels of bick laying, stating fom the low one, ut without the base on to the loess deosits and ending by the last one (in height 1,42-1,43 m).
Seven ows of bicks (1-7) had bight bown colo; thee ows (8-10) with taces of stong coosion; two ows (11-12) of bight bown colo.
It is obvious, that twelve ows of bicks (bight Ц bown colo) mak the level of bath constuction. Befoe bick laye was УenteedФ into the dig u base hole. The bick eseved its natual colo, because sun ays did not influence diectly on its suface. At the same time, Moslem Bath-houses when othe eight ows of bick laying wee situated above the level of day suface and thei sides had faded. Thee ows of lates (8-10) have the taces of stong coosion Ц obvious evidence of moistue suface (outwad side of walls) which is maked by two ows of bicks (11-12) of bight boudon colo.
Thee wee not fixed any flues while the esence of last one in suosed.
Light and ventilation wee ealized though the holes in aches and cuolas. In ae cases the windows wee established in the walls. Aetues in cuolas wee otected by cas of bunt clay with cuts o glasses. Some fagments of tansaent window glass wee found of the floo of the sixth emise.
Premise #3 was УtechnicalФ, what is exlained by location in it of a big cisten fo wate heating (diamete of cisten is 1,27 m, thickness of walls is 0,12-0,14 m). This is esevoi of ound shaed fom, fomed of halves of ieces of bicks ut in one ow on to the claw infusion with thin with thin laye of УkyФ on to. Thickness of walls is 0,14 m, thickness of lasteing is 1 cm.
It was esented by white clay, thickness of lasteing is 4,7 cm. Fagments of bicks wee comaed one to each othe comehensively and thee wee seen the taces of ky.
So, heating of wate in cisten is connected comletely with temeatue gadations in hyocaustic. Additional fie-chambe nea the cisten fom outwad side was not evealed, while its esence togethe with anothe one, situated in the westen at of constuction, is ossible.
Aaently, the system of suly of heated wate is simle. In was taken and ut into the cistens and distibuted to washing ooms.
The numeous findings in excavations wee ceamic ats of wate suly (kubus).
Seveal ceamic wate ies wee discoveed in diffeent ats of excavations in aw bick deosits and in house hold its. The seaate at of wate ies of 6 sections did not have any elation to the cental constuction. Most likely, this fagment of wate ies was efeed to the latest in egad to the bath-house chonological hoizon.
In the south-easten outwad wall of the main constuction, in 1,76 m to the east fom the southen cone, of the deth 0,43-0,45 m fom ue level of walls thee was discoveed the ceamic ie in diamete 9 cm, thickness of wall 1 cm, going to the outwad wall by low at of socket. 10 cm of wide at of socket of this section was outside. It is necessay to note, that fom inne side of emise #3 wall identified like the technical one, thee is no exit of this ie.
Fom anothe side in the emise #1, in the lace of joint of outwad and inne walls, dividing the emises #1 and #4 is seen the exit vetically ut ceamic ie in diamete 10 cm (thickness of walls is 0,9 cm) Ц by its wide at of socket going to the bick laying of wall.
Duing cleaning of this sace thee was discoveed the second section, joint with ue one, ut also vetically. It can be suosed, that net of wate ie was situated inside bick walls.
Thee wee not fixed any taces of soot on inne suface of kubus, so they wee not defined like ventilating inne wall devices.
The souce of wate, situated of foothill section of closely situated foest was cuently existing sing with slightly salt wate. It is obvious, that it was enough essue, ceated Chapter III
All bicks have longitudinal lines (taces of finges), made on aw clay Ц action, diect to stengthening of laye.
Unde the evious study of laye: in two bicks, laye in Уone and half bickФ. Bicks of big sizes wee used fo aving of floos.
All inne walls wee coveed be the laye of ky in thickness ~ 1 cm.
Outwad sides of walls did not eseve the taces of lasteing.
Cental statigahy edge on all olongation was taken into the base of eseach of statigahy situation. Fo the detailed examination of all layes and layes was used the shaft #1, in deth 3,1 m u to the eath. So, the ossibility aeaed to obseve comletely the levels fom ue tuf u to the eath one.
On the base of ceamics, and also the analogous by constuction bath comlexes eseached on the huge teitoy of Euasia, we can efe moe o less suely the bath of Kayalyk to the XIIIЦXIV cc129.
Bath house of Zhaiyk site was situated almost in the cente of site. It is destoyed stongly by taking of bicks fo seconday use. It was a success to eveal atially lanning of its suckling at.
The building of bath house was semi undegound constuction, suckle at of which was situated on the eath on the deth 1,2-1,3 m. Aaently, fo constuction of bath house was eviously dig u the foundation it, whee was built the base of bath house and heating system in a fom of heating channels unde the floo of the main emises. The floo was suoted by bick columns, situated in chess ode. Outwad walls in thickness 1 m wee built close to the walls of foundation it.
The southen outwad wall of bath house was destoyed comletely. Only small fagment of laying in width in two ows of bicks has been eseved. The westen wall was destoyed u to the base and on the floo was obseved its taces. The nothen outwad wall whee the entance was situated, as all noth-easten at of comlex, emained out of the bodes of excavation.
Bath house has coss shaed lanning. Its cental emise had octagonal lan, laced into quadangula with the side 4 m.
Benjuaes Ц niches with sufas inceased the squae of cental hall. The asses to the emises, intended fo washing, wee going fom the hall. Aaently, they had diffeent temeatue of heating Ц УcoldФ and УhotФ. Washing ooms wee sulied by basins and cauldons. Some of them wee attached by alabaste infusion to the sufas (obvious taces of alabaste ae esented on many fagments of ceamic vessels). Cold wate was sulied to the emises by ies, obably, installed in walls. A lot of ieces of ceamic ies Ц kubus with chaacteistic УcuffФ on the edge of ie, going to the emise, was closed by the secial ceamic УCoveФ was fastened at the edge of ie by alabaste infusion. Suly of wate to washing ooms was egulated by it130. Thee simila УcovesФ wee discoveed. In Volga Rive egion of Golden Hode such findings ae called УcoksФ131.
On the teitoy of Golden Hode achaeologists eseached the emains of moe than 20 town bath houses. It is noted, that in constuction of bath house in Volga Rive egion thee ae two building taditions in two tyes of lanning: УRome Ц ByzantiumФ, connected with line lanning and the УeastenФ, esented by coss-shaed lanning132. The ow of chaacteistic featues, noted unde excavation of bath house on the site Zhaiyk let to efe it to the bath houses hammam of the easten tye.
The squae of the bath house Zhaiyk site is defined eviously in 110-120 m2. Cental hall had octagonal lanning. Pemises fo washing wee joint to it fom the east and west.
Chapter III The bath house was heated by sub floo heating system. Heating channels wee established unde the floos and sufas of all inne emises. Suckle at of all constuction was deeened as minimum fo 1,4 m into gound. Wate was sulied to washing emises (and to the bath house) by banch system of ceamic ies. In the simila bath houses of Bulga emained much bette, the wate was sulied actically too all emises, cold and hot by the way of ceamic ies, installed inside the walls. Small stone cisten stood in the emises unde exit of ies fom the wall.133 It is necessay to note, that this tye of bath houses exists in Cental Asia cuently without any changes. The analogous by lanning bath house functioned in Shakhiizyabs (Uzbekistan) and on the teitoy of the cult comlex of Khodja Akhmed Yasawi in Tukestan last centuy.
Bath house of Saraichik site. This big town is situated on the bank of Ual Rive. The at of site has been eseved and anothe one was washed out by ive. The eseved south-easten at of bath house was cleaed duing excavations. The mateials eceived duing excavations let to define functionally distinguished ats: washing section consisted of two emises and e bath house section.
Saaichik bath house was olonged ectangula in lan building consisted of thee emises situated in ow along long axis: e bath house section with atial heating, soa ooms, consisted of two emises of heating with sub floo heating and fie-chambe section Wate could be sulied to the bath house fom Zhaiyk Rive (Ual) o its banch Soochinki by wate lifting devices like chigi o fom the neaest well. Hot wate fom heated cisten in fie-chambe section was sulied to the washing emises by wate ies installed, aaently, in the walls. Fudging by the analogues, emises of washing section had ach ove lawings, and e bath house section had lain ove laing.
Washing section is esented by the emains of two emises: ## 1 and 2. In that emises eseved the system of sub floo heating, deeened fo 0,6 m in egad to the level of wall basis. The wall of washing section emained in length fo 5,9 m.
Premise #1. The south-easten wall is well eseved and its biggest at is made of aw bicks. The at of wall, going inside the emise was done of bunt bicks ut in two ows.
Small section of south-westen wall of thickness 0,64 m ut of bunt bicks in sizes 24245-6 cm has been eseved. The laying was fixed to the south-easten wall, what oves thei one time building.
In the southen cone of emise 1 emained two columns of bicks fom heating system of bath house. The column which was the neaest to the southen column emained on height in 3 layes of bicks, the second Ц in two layes of bicks on clay solution.
The bicks had sizes 24244,5 cm. The height of columns is 17-20 cm; distance between them is 18-20 cm.
The premise #2. It joints to the emise #1 fom the noth-east. The south-easten wall emained best of all: the length of the emained at is 2,8 m, the height is 1,34 m. It emained on height 1,34 m. The wall is fomed of big size aw bicks in sizes 34344 cm and of bunt bicks in sizes 24245-6 cm.
Premise #3 is e bath house emise. The noth-easten and the south-easten wall in length 10mhave been eseved. The emains of sufas with heating system like kans ae fixed in the emise. Sufa and heating channels ae made of aw bicks in sizes 41-4220-216-7 cm. Excavation showed that in sufa had been ut thee channels: the width of channels is 20-31 cm, the deth is 15 cm. The bottom of channels was going u slowly to the noth-east.
Moslem Bath-houses The emained fagments of building constuctions of bath house wee evealed duing cleaning of the emise. So, fagments of floo in sizes 3856 cm wee found. The bicks in this block ae fastened by moistue oof solution, then the laye of ky is going in thickness 2,5-3 cm; the following laye consisted of bicks of small sizes and ieces of bicks. The ue laye of floo was coveed by the laye of ky in thickness 5 cm, the geneal thickness of floo is 19-20 cm. Fagment of wall Ц atition on was evealed and cleaned, whee was lasteed vetically the ceamic ie.
The details of achitectual dco Ц the late of cash in with blue glaze and sub glaze ainting of blue colo in a fom a geometical figue of tiangles and osette, decoated by gilding wee evealed duing excavation of bath house.
The tens of coins of the XIV c. wee found in filling of the emise. It is necessay to note among all findings the fagment of glazed ceamics with sub glaze ainting by cobalt colo. Aeaance of such ceamics is efeed to the late XIV c.
Teasue of 84 coins was found behind e bath house emise on the level highe than the suface of wall basis. The mass of coins had ints of fabic, obably, fom the bag, whee was ket the teasue. The ue date of teasue is defined by the latest coin of Abdallah-khan (1360-1370 y.). So, the time of building and functioning of bath house is efeed to the fist half of the XIV c.134 Chapter IV
Mausoleums and Necropolis Mausoleums T he ealy Islam as it is known, ohibited building of monumental buildings, seeing in them sinful idolization of a man, but ohibition had been infinged aleady in the IX c. by building of mausoleum ove the emains of Khalif al-Muntasi in Samaa.
Since that time dynastic family buial vaults Ц mausoleum fo noble eole, monumental buildings ove the emains of dogma teaches wee being built. Those monuments got the name ''maza'' and status of objects of woshi.
It is consideed to call mausoleums Ц mazas. Like cult constuction and the eole buied thee ae called Islam saced.
Mausoleums amount the essential at in the system of constuctions of the XЦXVIII cc.
This is exlained by oulaity of Sufism in Kazakhstan with its cult of buials and taditions of esectful layful attitude to the buials of eole, admitted wise and eligious.
The majoity of mausoleums of the X Ц ealy XIII c. ae cuola shaed, moe often quadangula, multi Ц sided o cucifom in lan. Quadangula sace of building is widened usually by axis niches with cuola suoted on tom. Ue cuola cove got sometimes the fom of cut, cone o gooved tent in double cuola coves aeaed in the XI c.
Dominating featue of mausoleum classification can be admitted quantity, location and establishment of entances. In the case classification looks like follows.
Centic buildings of УchotakФ tye with fou axis entances, equal facades and sace the vaiant of this tye ae cuola halls with two entances on geneal axis.
Facade mausoleums ae buildings with the main entance facade, fomed like otal, decoated iche than othe facades and sometimes aising above them like otal-eshtak.
Side entances ae ossible. These mausoleums ae consideed fo entance and aeaed fom one main side. The main faade diffes fom anothe ones by one, but imotant featue, fo examle, fieze with inscition.
Potal mausoleums wee with the main facade by otal-eshtak with ylons going out of facadeТs sace (diffeence fom buildings of the evious tye) and height bigge, than the
height of othe facades. Mausoleums of two last tyes diffe fom the analogous mosque, by absence of mikhab and as the ule, by diection to the sides of univese.
Mausoleums with multi Ц sided lan usually with stongly develoed otal can be included into the secial gou.
Some mausoleums do not coesond to any the above mentioned categoies. Mostly they ae multi-camea buildings o which got the УuntyicalФ view because of the additional buildings and econstuctions, combinations of gukhana with zyiaatkhana and othe emises. The fist exeiences of such kind constuctions ae dated by the XIЦXII cc.
The buials in the majoity of mausoleums of that time wee established in the gound unde the floo. But in some buial Ц vaults of the XI o in the XI c. thee ae cyts Ц small and ove laed by ach, with domos tadoo fom the side of entance. Ealy cyts ae not connected constuctively with the walls of mausoleums but they ae located ecisely elatively the emise was above, what oves the same time of building135.
Kayalyk mausoleums. Discovey of two mausoleums, situated nea the easten gates of town tells about the essential sead of Moslem cultue in the town of the noth-easten Jetysu aleady in e-Mongol eiod. The mateials collected duing the eseach of that constuction gives the ossibility to study intoduction of Moslem cultue into the life of citizens.
Kayalyk mausoleums ae efeed to cuola shaed ones with the distinguished entance main facade, decoated iche than othe facades and sometimes aising above them, like otal-eshtak. These mausoleums had entance fom one main side136. Building of ich mausoleums in the taditions of Moslem achitectue is the bight evidence of situation, when Islam could not to eadicate local taditions o laws and so thee was the attemt to give them Islam tint, to sanctity them by Islam laws137.
The size inne sace of the westen mausoleum is 9,38,9 m. Aaently, facade had the fom of ach niche in the ectangula fame. Potal of the westen mausoleum was wide than the southen facade. Cut tile-quate columns emained fom two sides of otal. The easten mausoleum was built to the westen one and the easten wall of the westen mausoleum became geneal, connecting these two emises. Potal of the easten mausoleum is going out fo 3,7 m in the nothen diection. And inne suface of the easten mausoleum was 5,85,8 m.
Such deeening of facade, undelines bightly its subodination the westen mausoleum. Potal of mausoleum is identical to the otal of the westen mausoleum constuctively.
Obstuction of bicks fom the boken facade wall was fixed in font of the mausoleums. Thee wee found fagments of lates, decoated by geometical and hebal onament.
The numeous ae fagments with Aab inscition Nash and kuhic with comound tangle of stict boken lines and hebal onaments. Thee ae also fagments of caving on ganch laste.
On the lates in sizes 5434-455,5 cm by dee (u to 2 cm) caving is shown the comound tangle of Aab scit and backgound onament Ц almettos, flowes and stems. Wide fou Ц centimete stie, tansfoming the combined lates into single stie, decoating the entance was cut in ue and low ats of lates. The second kind of lates in sizes 5639-405 cm is decoated by geometical onament, whee boken lines fom the comound comosition of coss shaed figues. The deth of caving eaches almost 2 cm.
Geometical hebal onament is seen in low ats of lates. Fagments with not dee elief u to 1 cm caving on ganch with hebal and geometical onament have been eseved;
most likely, they ae the details of inteio of mausoleum.
Chapter IV The ichest of the faade at of mausoleums of Uzgen memoial comlex of the XIЦ XII cc. can be called, like one of the closest analogues138.
Two buials wee evealed in the fist mausoleum. They wee established in the nothen at of mausoleum by the cente, eendicula to the nothen wall. The laces of buial ae maked by two aallel walls in thickness one bick, fomed of bunt bick in size 27275 cm.
The buials discoveed in mausoleums wee done of the deth 06-0,7 m in buial its in sizes 0,922,1 m, coveed by bunt bicks on the eimete. Buials in wooden coffins ae ove laed by beams. Skeletons wee ut by Moslem tadition Ц on the back, head is tuned to the side of Kiblah.
The fist buial was fixed on the deth 0,65 m between walls-fences. The buial it was coveed by bunt bicks on the eimete. The noth-westen side is wide than the southeasten one fo 22 cm. The deth of it is 0,62 m and the walls ae fomed of 9 ows of laye.
The diection is by the line south-south-east to noth-noth-west. The floo of buial it is coveed by bunt bicks in size 25255,5 cm.
The buial was ove laed by the beams felt into the it. The buial was done in wooden coffin by Moslem tadition. Skeleton laid of the back, the facial at of head was tuned to the side of kiblah. The scull is cut by felt beam. The hands lay on stomach. The ight leg is staight;
the left one is cuved in kneel. Remains of shoulde ae eseved in the ue at of skeleton.
Ion fastenings emained fom coffin and wooden beams ae educed to dust comletely.
The second buial was done fom the easten side fom the fist one and it is seaated fom it by wall-fence by the level of day suface. The buial it is maked by dak-geen sot, ounded on the eimete by yellow-bown gound with ebbles.
On the deth 40 cm fom the wall-fence unde the ebbles was discoveed ove laing of 14 cm beams. Ove laing felt info the buial it. At the nothen edge, at the head was cleaned out the obstuction of boken bunt bicks. Thee was also found fagment of caved lasteing with geometical onament, fagments of ion cauldonТs nimbus and glazed bowl (geen Ц outside and yellow glaze Ц inside).
The beams of ove laing ae oval in cut in diamete fom 10 to 20 cm and ut acoss the it. The edge beams wee on the walls of buial it and eseved the initial location.
Vault in sizes 2,050,67-0,92 m of bunt bicks (28167 cm, 35197 cm) was discoveed afte emoval of ove laing. The vault was widened to the side of head of the bed. The deth of buial it is 0,7 m (8 ows of laying). Double buials in wooden coffins wee discoveed in the buial. Skeleton of adult man laid to the ight side to the east. Pats of coffin ae destoyed and only ue aks of coffinТs cove, ion fastenings and ings ae eseved. Fastenings ae late cams and cones with tacey edges.
Duing excavations of one of the buials of the easten mausoleums wee fixed the buial things: golden finde-ings with sub quadangula squae and hebal onament; golden ea-ing, decoated by miniatue, widening in a fom of cube with cut tos, neck adonment with golden hole endants in a fom of olonged shee, fomed in the laces of soldeings by the belt of double twisted flute, fine golden endants, tuquoise and eal beds.
The numeous memoial constuctions analogous to the excavated Kayalyk mausoleums have wide chonological and teitoial aea.
Mausoleums of Kayalyk as well as the numeous Golden Hode mausoleums have one geneal eculiaity. The buials wee done with some deviations fom Moslem tadition (lacing of buied in the coffin) o they wee accomanied by the vaious buial things139.
The buials in mausoleums belonged to the eesentatives of high anks.
Memorial Architecture Mausoleum of Ornek site. Two constuctions of diffeent times wee evealed out of the cental fotification of Onek site, in the south-westen at unde the eveal of hill in height 1,5 m and diamete 30 m. The ue constuction is esented by the emains of mausoleum with the walls diected by the sides of univese. The walls ae fomed of bunt bicks in size 21209 cm. The emained height of walls is 0,7-0,8 m, thickness is u to 0,8 m. The sizes of constuction by outwad cicle of walls ae 7,57,5 m. The floo of mausoleum is aved by ectangula bunt bick (24124 cm).
Mausoleum was used unde the collective buials, done in the vaults of bunt bicks.
Remains of wooden ove laing wee situated on its floo. Pieces of wooden bunt beams wee found at the easten wall. One of the ieces in sizes 5512,52,5 cm is decoated by hebal onament. The mausoleum is dated by the XIЦXII cc.140 Mausoleum of Otrar XIIIЦXIV cc. is situated to the west of the cental uins, whee was situated the gou of seveal hills.
One of them had the view of hill of oval fom (1820 m), olonged fom the east to the west, in height 1,5 m. The westen at of hill was destoyed duing building evealed the emains of the westen walls, in length 7 m, thickness 0,8 m. Laye emained in the nothen edge to the height 40 cm, in the southen Ц 5 cm.
The emains of wall and noth-easten cone of building had been excavated futhe.
The walls did not have the base; thei base was situated on the deth 1,5 m fom the to of hill. They wee made of bicks of quadangula fom of yellow and ed bunt. The sizes of bicks ae 25255, 26265, 27275 cm and aely 25255 cm. The bicks wee ut flat wise and they wee fixed by fluid of yellow colo. The emained height of walls is fom 5 (one bick) u to 96 cm, thickness is 80 cm (3 bicks). The noth-easten cone had the biggest height Ц 61-96 cm. Diffeent height of walls is exlained by the fact, that in ancient the bicks wee taken off fo seconday use.
Excavations showed that the walls wee the emains of building of quadangula fom in lan (the length of the southen and nothen walls is 10,7 m the westen and easten Ц 10,4 m diected to the sides of univese with small deviation (15∞) to the East. The building caied the cult chaacte. Household constuctions (fie-laces, tandys) ae absent; findings of ceamics ae not essential, mostly glazed ceamics. Thee was situated maza.
Excavations gave the inteesting mateial about the Moslem buials in vaults. Vaults wee built of aw bicks in sizes mostly 20408 cm, sometimes 19398 cm. Glue infusion was fluid clay. Thickness of vaultТs walls is one bick; the emained height is 25 cm. The bicks wee ut flat wise. Vaults had the ectangula fom. Side walls of vaults wee slightly tuned out and naowed to the side of head and leg ats. The length of vaults is fom 1,5 u to 2,2 m in deendence of the height of buied. The width is fom 0,8 u to 1 m. They ae diected by the line south-noth with not essential deviation to the West.
It was not a success to obseve chaacte of ove laing because of its destoying.
But it was established, that the bicks in side walls wee ut stictly, vetically, without la inside.
The vaults wee situated by single ode by ows, sometimes aallel, joining by shot walls. They wee built on the deth fom 0,3 u to 1,7 m fom the to of hill, some of them wee built on the level of wallТs base, along it.
Ceemony of buial was simila eveywhee. Buials wee done on ahsa squae in thickness 20 cm. All buials ae single, at the exclusion of one buial, whee woman and child wee buied. The dead laid in olong osition on the back. Hands wee cuved in Chapter IV elbow, hands wee situated on ubis. Hands of one buied wee ut on the beast, left hand of one buied laid on ubis, ight hand laid on beast. Heads of all buied wee diected to the Noth, some of buied was tuned to the west. Thee wee no things in the buials.
Thee wee excavated totally 20 buials. They wee situated aound the building and in the quadangula of walls. It is obvious that the cemetey was established on the lace of the destoyed maza, which was consideed like saced.
Fagments of glazed ceamics ae chaacteized by ed angob and glaze of geen and ed colos. Thee was also ceamics coveed by dak blue glaze. The mausoleum is dated by the XIIIЦXIV cc.141 Mausoleum of Arystanbab was built above the buial of famous Tukic sheikh, who was the teache of Khodja Akhmed Yasawi in young yeas. The name of Aystanbab was mentioned not one time in khikmets of Khodja Akhmed.
Aystanbab was buied not fa fom Ota, nea Kuiyktobe site, identified with caital town of subub Ota Ц Faab in the XЦXI cc, Kede. It is necessay to undeline, that in the X c. in Kede was built the mosque, obably, one of the fist in that egion142. One of the ealiest Moslem necoolises was discoveed nea Kyiyktobe143.
The histoy of mausoleum is connected, obably, with its comlete destoy. Then it was estoed unde Timu ule, at the end of the XIVЦ ealy XV c., destoy afte the eath quake in 1860 yea and building of a new mausoleum and then constuction consisted of mausoleum and mosque in 1909 y.144 Mausoleum is multi camea and it consists of mausoleum itself Ц buial-vault of Aystanbab, gukhana with buials of its students, and followes, aiwan and mosque. Two cuolas wee built above buial-vaults. Cente of comosition was otal, aow shaed ach suoted by the ylons in low at. The mosque had illa configuation. Six wooden columns ae suoted by ledges. Two columns ae dated by the late XIVЦXV c.145 Duing consevational woks on mausoleum in 2004 y. in the emise of gukhana was taken off the floo whee was discoveed the cone of emise made of bunt bicks on the deth 12 cm. The sizes of discoveed bicks ae analogous to the sizes of Kede mosqueТs bicks, thei sizes ae 1893,5 cm and 19,515,55,5 cm. In the tench was established the emained height of the nothen wall: 49 cm (10 ows of laying), in length 2,96 m.
The emains of othe constuctions of bunt bicks wee evealed. The eseaches established, that in the histoy of mausoleum ae distinguished the initial constuction of the XII c. and constuction of the late XIV c. including the constuction of the XII c.146 Khodja Akhmed Yasawi Mausoleum is situated in the cente of Tukestan town.
The fist constuction of mausoleum above the buial of Khodja Akhmed Yasawi, as it was claified, is efeed to the ealiest time.
Decoative image of this ealy constuction is connected by the eseaches with seveal fagments of teacotta caved lates, found duing estoation of a many yeas, and the building itself is consideed like destoyed at the end of the XIV c. unde constuction of the geat khanaka comlex by ode of Emi Timu.
Seaate sections of ealy walls, coveed by ai bicks with inclusions Ц УbowsФ and fagments of teacotta lates emained fom it and discoveed und estoation of walls of the XIV c. in the egion of gukhana. It could be suosed on the base of fagmentay data, that mausoleum ove the saced was built ight afte his buial in 1166 y. Its decoative foming Memorial Architecture coesonded to the style of its time, and Уcomaatively small ictue by onaments told, that sizes of mausoleum wee smallФ.
S.G.Khmelnitsky suosed that Уmausoleum of the XII c. above the buial of Khodja Akhmed YasawiФ was the quadangula emise with the sides in length 7,5 m and not dee axis niches on all sides, which wee cut by the entances, Ц the building had to be centically, like УchotakФ.
Thee ae all the bases to conside, that the fist mausoleum Khodja Akhmed Yasawi in Tukestan was not common modest constuction, but it stood in one ow with the most elite and geat by decoative futues monuments of its eoch147.
The eseaches conside that mausoleum of Khodja Akhmed Yasawi is multifunctional comlex, which it would be coect to call khanaka. Thee is djamaatkhana Ц hall fo zikes and meetings, gukhana Ц emise with the buial of Khodja Akhmed Yasawimosque; big and small aksaay Ц emises fo meetings and theologian seeches, disutes, kitab-khana Ц emise of libay and witing. Sizes of constuction ae 6050 m, height Ц 15 m.
Cuola and aches of otal ise u to the mak 38 m.
Axial location of the main emises on facade was evealed by stong volumes of main otalТs ach, cuola of djamaatkhana and buial-vault. Achitectue of facades is simle and does not have elements of lastic. Big lain sufaces of walls ae cut aely by window and doo aetues.
Mausoleum is ounded by anel of yellow sandstone lates at the base fom thee sides, above which is one and half mete stie of glazed tiles. All walls highe anels, dums and cuola ae coveed by blue, dak blue wite tiles in a fom of big attens of yellow Ц blue backgound of bicks. Gacious otal did not have any decoations.
Doos with caving and taces of incustation of bone oen the entance to the cental and the biggest emise in sizes 18,518,5 m. The huge bonze cauldon, which was melted not fa fom Kanack village, in 25 km to the Noth-West fom Tukestan stands in the cente of hall. Sweet wate was oued into cauldon and it was distibuted afte the end of Fiday ay.
Buial vault of Khodja Akhmed is situated behind the cental hall Ц kazanlyk. Buial stone is ut of lain lates of light geen stone. Pemise itself is also vey modest: white walls down wad ae coveed by blue tile anel with dak blue cone semi columns.
Thee ae many othe emises in mausoleum Ц mosque and khudjas fo ilgims.
Some of them wee tansfeed into buial-vaults soon afte building. Gave stones of the XVЦXIX cc. call the names of buied.
Medieval handicaftsmen used all kinds of alied at in achitectual Ц atistic decoation of monument Ц caving on mood, alabaste, bone stone and metal; glazed tiles of dak blue, blue, white colos; bick laying, foming the comound onamental atten.
Texts fom Koan ae laced on sub cuola fiezes, in facing of mikhab and they ae done by canonized scit. Caet fillings of walls with stylization of lettes contain eeatedly fequent technological sentences. Secially decoated is ibbed cuola of buial vault, decoated thooughly by glazed olychomic lates.
Tukestan monument let to eveal technological eculiaities of medieval building in connection with not finished constuction and, aticulaly, with not finished otal. Thee emained ancient wooden buildings fo lifting. Bunt bick layes let to undestand incile of ising of big aetue aches. The taces of temoay laddes of building eiod, nests in walls fo fastening of cuolas, gysum moulds of aches emained in the emises of otal at.
Chapter IV Contemoaies estimated the constuction by tue woth. Ruzbekhan wote, that Уmausoleum Khodja Akhmed is one of the most monumental constuctions of the wold.
Staggeing and avishing human at is exessed in achitectue of mausoleumФ.
Mausoleum of Esim-khan. The main facade of mausoleum is tuned to the east and it is fomed by otal. The bases of walls ae ut of bunt bicks in sizes 25125 cm. The emains of walls with niches ae the evidences of cuola ove laing of mausoleum.
Mausoleum was coveed by glazed lates of blue, dak Ц blue Ц yellow and geen glaze.
Entance to the buial-vault with cucifom lanning was situated in the south-easten wall. Aow shaed aches suoted flat ach in height 3 m. Floo was aved by bunt bicks.
Constuction of mausoleum, most likely, is efeed to the XVII c.148 Turkestan Underground Mausoleum. In 1951-1957 yy. the secial scientificЦ estoation oduction woksho of the State of Constuction Deatment of Uzbek SSR caied out estoation of Khodja Akhmed Yasawi mausoleum. Head of this wok T.Kaumidze discoveed base of mausoleum situated in 10 m fom the noth-westen wall Bolshoi Aksa in 1954 y.
In 1997 y. Tukestan achaeological exedition continued the eseaches. Undegound quadangula in lan building was cleaned out duing the woks. Length of its walls is diffeent: Noth-West Ц 3,97 m, South-East Ц 4,1 m South-West Ц 4,12 m, Noth-East Ц 4,09 m.
Size of bicks is as follows: 28285 cm; 26265 cm; 29296 cm. The entance was in the south-westen wall with joint coido-domos. Thickness of its walls is 0,4-0,5 m, height is 1,34 m Ц 15 ows of bick laying. Inne size of constuction is 3,13,083,143,13 m width of ass is 1,2 m.
Constuction is ove laed by cuola in height 2,54 m.
Kok-Kesene Mausoleum is destoyed comletely, but thee ae hotos and descitions.
Mausoleum is quadangula in lan with buial vault unde floo. Entance is distinguished by otal with ach-shaed ach. The main volume is esented by the quadangula, ism, ass octagonal figue, sixteen-side dum and cone shaed tent. Mausoleum was facade outside by coloful glazed bicks, foming geometical atten and by multicoloed mosaic with Aab inscition inside unde the cuola.
Comosition of Kok-Kesene mausoleum ootions, tent shaed cuola ae ising to the taditions of Khoesm achitectue of the XIV c. The bightest samle of such achitectue is so called mausoleum of Tyuyabek-Khanum in Kunya-Ugench. By its style and histoical situation, Kok-Kesene mausoleum was buied nea the middle of the XV c. and it is connected with the buial of one of the ominent Uzbek Khans, obably, Abulkhai Khan149.
Kerderi I Mausoleum is situated on the bottom of dy at of the Aal Sea.
Befoe of excavations the monument looked like olonged oval in lan hillock in sizes 4230 m and height about 2,3 m diected by long axis the line Noth-South.
Its cental at is fomed by the uins of ectangula contaction. Thickness of wall base is 1,45-1,65 m made of stone lates. Sizes of constuction ae 824 m. Constuction of divided by two coss walls fo thee emises. Boken and whole bunt bicks (25255 cm) laid aound the base and ob its suface. Some fagments of glazed and unglazed decoative lates with caved and stamed onament wee found among bick obstuction.
Memorial Architecture Potal was built of bunt bicks and it was decoated by the belts of glazed and unglazed lates with caved onament. Two ectangula emises of small sizes (6,66,5 m and 7,47 m) joint fom south and noth to the cental funeal emise Ц zyiaatkhana.
The floo was aved by bunt bicks of quadangula fom in the southen diection.
The nothen emise was gukhana Ц lace of buial. Cuola at of undegound buial vault was cleaned thee unde the floo. Cental at of cuola had been boken. But cuola emained in the cones. Cuola is efeed to the tye УbalhiФ.
The most inteesting among findings ae fagments of glazed teacotta lates with caved onament. Comaative analysis of fagments is decoative lateТs shows, that this onamental style and technology ae chaacteistic to Cental Asian (Khoesm) and Golden Hode monuments of the VIV c.
Mausoleum is dated by the middle of the XIV c.150 Kerderi II Mausoleum. Settlement, called conditionally Aal-Asa, is situated in 65,2 km fom moden village Kaateen, situated in 370 km to the noth-west fom Kzyloda.
The village stood on the bank of Aal Sea not long ago, but the sea is on distance 320 km fom it cuently.
The total squae of Aal-Asa settlement is 6 hectaes. Household subjects wee found on the suface in a big quantity: millstones, ceamic vessels and thei boken, fagments of ion and bonze items.
Building constuctions ae badly distinguished now on suface. They ae washed out by the wates of Aal.
Citizens of the medieval settlement wee engaged in faming. Thee wee found 14 millstones and situated nea by emises of flou Ц khumdana. Flou-ginding oduction was well develoed.
Collected glazed ceamics tuquoise, dak blue and black colos is the evidence of townТs life in the late XIV c.
Suface, coveed by boken ieces of bunt bicks was discoveed in the exloing shaft in the deth 0,3 m. In the cente of that laying was situated a big vessel-khum, dig u into the gound fo moe than one thid and coveed on to at by bunt bicks so, that shouldes of vessel wee not seen.
The site is Уone layeФ and it existed fo a shot time, obably, some tens of yeas.
Excavations on the site caied in autumn 2005 y. confimed shot life in that settlement. Two silve coins, oduced in Golden Hode and dated middle of the XIV c. wee found. The fist coin Ц Djuchides XIV c., coinage of Dzhanibek Khan (1341-1357) in Saay al-Djadid (?), the yea is lost. The second coin Ц Djuchides XIV, coinage of Nauuz-bek. He uled in 760yy. h./1358-1361 yy., coinage of Saay al-Djadid, the yea is lost. Settlement is ounded by necoolis in sizes 110400 m fom the southen and south-easten sides. Its teitoy is defined by concentation of bunt bick.
Ruins of cental mausoleum ae localized on necoolis, situated nea the settlement AalAsa. Befoe excavations it was swollen hill in height 1,6 m. Stone laying of outwad nothen wallТs base of mausoleum is well eseved. ItТs made of lates in thee ows in width 2,2 m.
Maza, situated in the westen secto of olongation 130 m fom cental mausoleum, has clean bodes, confiming its ectangula fom. The size of hill is 14,711 m, the height is 0,2-0,3 m Ц by its fom and location it is identical to the cental constuction of comlex.
Suface is coveed by fagments and hole bunt bicks with dee line, cut though all sace obseved on many bicks in cente.
Chapter IV The second maza is situated in 25 metes to the East fom cental mausoleum; its size is 65 m.
It had been evealed duing excavations, that cental mausoleum was diected by its cones to the sides of univese and it has the fom ectangula in lan. The walls of mausoleum wee coveed by bunt bicks in sizes 25255 cm. South-westen wall emained on height in six ows of bicks.
Inne sace of mausoleum esented by the emise of gukhana with sides 5,55,5 m.
Entance to the mausoleum is situated in the westen at of constuction and it is fomed by otal niche in width 2 m. Its ectangula flaming and ach wee decoated by glazed bicks with hebal and geometical onament and Aab inscitions. Fagments of decoative ound shaed bicks let to suose, that the ach was suoted on to thee quate columns, built into the cones of niche.
Obviously, inne walls of gukhana wee decoated by fou axis niches in deth about 1 m with entance in the south-easten niche. Entance was established in the south-easten niche and the main buial of mausoleum was situated in the noth-westen, deee at. Floo of emise was aved by ectangula bunt lates in sizes 44276,5 cm.
Seven buials of sagana tye wee evealed in mausoleum. The exclusion is buial #1, situated in noth-westen axis niche. The buial had been obbed aleady in ou days. Constuctive solution of this buial is seen inteesting and not tyical fo that time. It is aved by stones in a fom of cista and it was ove laed by thee massive lates. Thee wee no emains of buied man in the buial.
The buial situated in the easten cone of cental hall was evealed and excavated thee. Buial vault is esented by constuction of eight hoizontal ows of bicks with total height 0,46-0,5 m. The width of bick laye by outwad line is 1,49. Length of ue laye by outwad line is 2,95 m. It is olonged by the line noth-west Ц south-east. Coffin was situated inside the buial camea. On to it was ove laed by two beams. The dead was buied by the ceemony of body osition on the back, with head diected to the noth-westwest, hands ae olonged along the body.
Duing cleaning of buial at the left shoulde was found golden ea-ing edged by the figue of edatoТs head and small edant with stone. The same ea-ing was fixed in the egion of foot bones. Ea-ings ae made of stylized head of dagon, biting his tail and added by stone.
Teasue of ion things was found in the southen cone of cental hall of mausoleum.
Buials ## 18, 19 joint to the southen wall mausoleum.
Two buials #18 and #19 joint to the southen wall of mausoleum.
Buial #18 (childТs). The sizes ae done by the outwad laye of bick: length is 104 cm;
width is 105 cm. Laye in the fom of Уfu-teeФ consists of 8 ows of bicks.
Cove of wooden coffin was unde ovelaing and it had sizes as follows: length Ц 72 cm, width is 21-25 cm, thickness of coffinТs cove and its walls was 1,5-2 cm. Skull of a child was found duing excavations of coffin. Excavation showed that skeleton was in olonged osition on the back and it was diected by head to the Noth.
Burial #19 (childish). Cental laye of buial in length 1,55 m and width 1 m by vetically ut bick in a fom of Уfu-teeФ was done in thee lines: two aallel ones joint by cones.
The thid to one was established in a fom of hombus shaed figue fomed by the fist two lines of bicks.
Cove of coffin in a egion of head (nothen side) felt unde the weight of gound fo 5-7 cm fom the walls. The sizes of coffin ae following Ц length is 1,16 m, width in УheadФ Ц 0,37 cm, height Ц 0,28 m, width in УlegsФ Ц 0,27 cm, height is 0,18 m. The length of skeleton Memorial Architecture is 0,87 m. Skeleton was in olonged osition on back and it is diected by the line NothSouth. Thee was no tun of skull to the South-West.
Burial #20 is situated in the south-westen at of cental hall. Buial consists of outwad ectangula, inne one and it is finished on to of sagana by one ow of bicks with bicks equal to two whole bicks and one fouth at. The sizes of sagana ae following: length is 2,3 m, width is 1,4 m. The deceased was buied in a coffin.
Cove of coffin had two layes:
of two beams fastened in cente by wood. The nothen side wall (in heads) consists of two layes and it is five-sided. The sizes of coffin ae following: length is 1,84 m, the width of nothen side (in head) is 0,6 m, the height is 0,3 m, the width of southen side (in legs) is 0,24 m and height by the sides at the easten walls is 0,2 m.
Skeleton in length 1,4 m was in olonged osition on his back and the skull was tuned slightly by facial at to the South-West. The left am was acoss the body and hand laid to the ight side of sinal. The ight am was acoss the body and the legs wee in olonged osition. The skull had the taces of cuts.
Burial #21 was situated in the noth-westen at of mausoleum. Buial #22 was close fom the nothen at; buial #20 was close fom the westen at. Sagana consisted of outwad and inne ectangula fomed of standad size bunt bicks. To at of sagana was
made of bicks in one ow in width fo the length of two bicks. The sizes ae following:
length is 2 m, width is 1,38 m. Coffin was situated lowe than low at of bick laye. The sizes of buial it ae following: by the line Noth-South is 2,05 m, West-East is 1,4 m. Coffin had following sizes: length by the line Noth-South is 2 m; width in УheadsФ is 0,67 m, in УlegsФ is 0,35 m. The bottom was fomed of fou beams in width 10-15 cm, thickness is 2 cm.
The height of coffin in СheadТ is 0,3 m. Skeleton in length 1,67 m was in olonged osition on his back and tuned by head to the Noth, hands ae slightly cuved.
In the buial #21 on the deth 0,3 m fom the laye wee obseved the taces of cane floo and ovelaing unde it (thickness 7-10 cm) laid acoss the buial. Excavation was caied out afte the emoval of ovela.
Burial #22. The constuction above the buial is situated nea the nothen cone of mausoleum and it consists of outwad and inne ectangula. It is coveed by one ow of bunt bicks. The sizes of sagana ae following: length is 2,37 m; width is 1m.The sizes of buial it ae 1,950,82 m. Buial was done in a coffin with following sizes: length is 1,87 m, width in УheadsФ is 62 cm, in length is 38 cm; the height is simila-24 cm. Cove of coffin was fomed of fou beams in width 12-15 cm, bottom-of thee beams in width 17 cm, thickness of beams is 2 cm. Skeleton in length 1,74 m laid in olonged osition on his back. The skull was slightly tuned by facial at to the South-West, the left am was olonged along the body, the ight am was cuved and hand was on stomach (finges laid in the aea of elvis).
Dividing wall of buials 21 and 22 is one and the same fo the both of them and the buials wee done in one and the same time.
In the nothen at of mausoleumТs otal wee done excavations on the squae 2,55 m.
Duing the woks was evealed the destoyed in westen diection otal ach conseved in such osition by twenty-centimete laye of bick fagments of faade and nothen walls of mausoleum washed out by sea to the nothen side. The ach shaed laye of standad size bicks (25254,5 cm) in one ow with layes of gey colo infusion between the ows. Inne side of ach (southen) was decoated by ieces of small bicks (9,552,5 cm) coveed by blue colo glaze. Thee wee fixed 41 bicks ut in one ow hoizontally foming outwad side of ach. Suosedly, the wooden block in size 187 cm was fixed unde Уsub hillФ bicks.
Onamentation could be in a fom of belt in УchessФ ode. On the esent line of glazed Chapter IV bicks obseved above wee seen afte 23 ows of laye (account fom Уsub hillФ bick and highe afte two joint ows eeated twice. Fom inne side of laye wee fixed two ows of bicks ut vetically and thickness of infusion in that laye eached 2 cm and hoizontal laye of seveal bicks joint to two vetical layes of bicks closely.
In the southen cone of cental hall of mausoleum unde the floo was discoveed the teasue of ion things.
Constuction of mausoleum is efeed to the middle of the XIV c. and to the sometime could be efeed the buials in them151.
Abat-Baitak Mausoleum is situated in 12 km to the south of Taldysay village of Khoblandisky egion of Aktobe oblast on the to of wate division section of ives Bolshaya Khobda and its left banch ive Kaasu in Besko canyon. Mausoleum was mentioned fo the fist time in famous wok of P.Rychkov УTooghia OenbugskayaФ, whee it is said, that in 1750 y. enginee Rigelman discoveed and dew Уsmall stone constuction like yamids wick Kigizes called astana and it is said thee, that noble eole wee buied thee and they call Baitan and they announced him, Rigelman, that thee in ancient times was townЕФ152. It is mentioned like the essential monument of achitectue of the Late Middle Ages in the wok of famous Oenbug scientist of e evolution time A.I.Kastanie devoted to the memoial monuments of the Kazakh stee153. Aaently, the fist measuing of mausoleum was done by enginee G.Geasimov in the yea 1947. He made measues of aleady destoyed mausoleum. By his data the low sace of monument is esented like octagon154. It was omoted by the destoy of the southen at of monument (СotalТ) what bought to not simle inteetation of its achitectual lanning view by following eseaches.155 M.Mendikulov suosed that esent mausoleum is efeed to the УcentictentФ tye of buial constuctions and it has the quadangula lan (8,138,25 m ) by outwad contou of walls156. S.I.Adjigaliev econstucted lan of mausoleum like one camea otaltent constuction (9,259,8 m). The most full histoical-achitectual eseach of mausoleum belongs to the above mentioned scientist.157 At the beginning of the 60-es achitect and secialist on estoation A.Itenov woked out lan of consevation (with elements of econstuction) of mausoleum. As it is becoming clea now woking out of mausoleumТs lan was done without oe account of the initial lan of constuction: enough achaeological eseaches of the medieval wallТs base wee not caied, but M.Mendikulov dated Abat-Baitak by the fist quate of the XIII c. and he suosed that it was built obably in the eiod of close contacts of Kichaks with Khoesm. But S.I.Adjigaliev efeed its building to the eve of the XIVЦXV cc. by achitectual-style featues and also on the base of analysis of the legend accomanying the monument158. We note that the same tye mausoleum Kesene in South Ual egion is dated suely by the XIV c.159
Achaeological excavations in the yea 2004 wee caied out on two main sections:
inside gukhana emise (on all squae) and on the section of ziaatkhana emise which was made somewhee160. Laye of building debis and dust in thickness fom 0,7 u to 1,1 m was collected on that sections duing many centuies of the existence of monument.
The initial floo of emise aved by the bunt bicks was evealed on the section of ziaatkhana in the esult of achaeological woks. It was done on the deth 1,1 m fom the level of moden day suface. Bick aving was fixed clealy in the westen and the easten ats of a emise. The width of ziaatkhana by the line Noth-South is equal to 2 m.
It was not ossible to define the width of doo aetue, because the at of a emise situated along cental axis whee the entance to mausoleum was situated it was destoyed.
Memorial Architecture But thee is the base to suose that doo aetue was established in the niche on the deth 0,5 m and the width not less than 5 m. The westen cone of that niche was fixed clealy.
Also it is not ossible to define the width of doo aetue connecting ziaatkhana and gukhana as the dividing wall was destoyed essentially.
The taces of the initial easten and the at of southen wall of ziaatkhana wee ovela by the latest УestoedФ laye by the moden bick on cement infusion. So it was a success to fix only the base (1-2 ows of bicks) of inne side of the southen wall in the easten and westen cones of emise. Noth-westen and noth-easten cones by the level of the initial floo wee evealed clealy.
Thin (0,7-0,9 m) laye of debis and building emains wee located in gukhana and on the lace of ziaatkhana. Squae of gukhana was 5,25,2 m. Cleaning was caied out on all squae of emise. On the deth 0,7-0,9 m thee wee evealed the emains of floo aved by the quadangula bunt bicks afte cleaning of all squae. But in the esult of the numeous e-excavations (constuction of buial its) that aving emained only on the seaate sections.
Afte cleaning of all squae of emise thee wee evealed buial its of seveal buials.
The its wee filled by gound and ieces of bunt bicks. It is become clea that buial constuctions (sagana) wee destoyed in all cases and the buials had been oened. Thee buial its wee cleaned out.
Burial # 1 is situated in the cente of nothen half of gukhana emise. The walls of buial it wee coveed by bunt bicks of half size (24125 cm) on alabaste infusion.
The bottom of buial box was coveed also by the quadangula bunt bicks. The width of buial box is 0,8 m, the length is 2,25 m. The deth of bottom fom the level of the initial floo is 1,5 m.The height of wall laye of bunt bicks was in 12 ows. Laye of the nothen and southen wall was situated highe, foming the ach box ovela. Pieces of whole bunt bicks, bones of human skeleton, and fagments of bunt wood wee found in the buialТs it filling.
Skeleton of buied was cleaned out on the bottom of buial box. Ue at of beast and shoulde unde the laye of wooden beams emained in situ. The buied man was adult judging by teeth enamel and sizes of bones tell about a big size of buied. On the bottom of it among wooden emains wee found ion details of coffinТs fastenes (lates, fastenes, cones). Among those details was found ion mace with ibbon shaed bush fo handle.
Its total height is 19,5 cm, diamete of bush is 2,6 cm. G.A.Fyodoov-Davydov consideed that found tye of weaon was not usual fo nomads161. But late he mentioned that kind of УbushesФ in the amament of waios-citizens, noting that weaon was not diffeent than amament of Уstee inhabitantsФ162. Pobably, in esent case that bush seved like scete.
Monumental chaacte of buial constuction, location of buied in the cente of gukhana, finding of bush tell about the high ange of buied, fo who, suosedly, was built such mausoleum.
Burial #2 is situated to the south fom the buial #1. It was common buial it (2,10,8 m deth 1,6 m) filled by gound, ieces of bunt bicks. Seveal bunt long facial bicks wee found among them.
Burial #3 is situated to the south of buial #2. Buial it was coveed by the bunt bicks in ten ows on alabaste infusion. The length of fomed box is 2,05 m, width is 0,8 m and the deth is 1,5 m. On the bottom of box was found not destoyed female skeleton in length 1,45 m. Skeleton was olonged on its back and it was diected to the west, hand of the left Chapter IV am was situated in the aea of ubis, the ight am was olonged along the body. On the lace of clothes wee found ieces of golden thead fom the clothes o buial savan of buied woman.
УMausoleum of Abat BatyФ was the base of foming of the Kazakh necoolis of the XVII Ц ealy XX centuy consisted of aw mausoleum and ensemble of moe than 200 buial stella-kuyltases163.
Kesene mausoleum simila to Abat-Baitak is situated in the South of Chelyabinsk oblast nea Vana village. It is known among local citizens like УTamelan ToweФ164. It attacted attention of such known eseaches like P.I.Rychkov, P.S.Pallas, A.I.Kastanie. In the yea 1889 E.A.Peti caied out excavations and discoveed the emains of thee buials. Remains of silk clothes wee found with the buied eole. Fagment of wooden cudgel (shoka) was found thee. It was of ink colo and thee wee found also ea-ing and finge ing what let to efe Kesene town to the XIIIЦXIV cc.
Comaison of these two monuments- mausoleums of Abat Baitak and Kesene shows that they ae analogous not only by outwad achitectual view and constuction, but they have simila main aametes. The both mausoleums have the ectangula in thei base.
Aaently, mausoleums wee discoveed and eseached by Ual achaeological exedition of A.Kh.Magulan Institute of Achaeology on the necoolis of Zhaiyk site in sububs of Ualsk town ae close to Abat Baitak mausoleum by lanning and achitectual chaacte.
Building of these mausoleums can be efeed moe o less suely to the time of shot, but intensive develoment of Golden Hode town cultue. This is the eiod of Khan Uzbek ule (1313-1339 yy.) when Islam became the state eligion officially in Golden Hode. As it is known the big ole in his aise to the cown was layed by УKhoesm atyФ headed by oweful Kutlak-Timu. Exactly fom that time eveywhee on the teitoies of Golden Hode was seen the intensive influence of Islam what was going afte the limitless oaganda of missiones.
Mausoleum of Koblandy. The uins of Koblandy Baty mausoleum ae situated in the nothen bode of aul Zhienko of Khobdinsky egion, Aktobe oblast, on the left bank of Uly-Khobda Rive.
The lace whee the mausoleum is situated is the highest lace of ive bank. This is the single lace not flowed in the eiod of sing flow.
In the esult of achaeological excavations in the yeas 2004-2005 thee wee evealed contous of mausoleum: ectangula in lan with sizes 11,68,5 m.
The westen cone is the most eseved at of the mausoleumТs emains. Laye in five ows of bicks has been eseved. Thee ae distinguished two sizes of bicks: quadangula 25255 cm which seved as the main building mateial and the ectangula ones with sizes 12255 cm.
The southen cone is maked by the eseved bick laye in height two ows. Outwad at of the southen cone is obseved clealy. The eseved height is in fou ows of bicks and solution Ц 25 cm.
Memorial Architecture Medieval buials wee evealed inside the mausoleum.
Burial# 1 is destoyed and it is olonged by the line Noth-West-South-East (Ц37 degees).The length of the buial it is 2,67 m and the width is 1,35 m, the deth is 1,8 m. One whole bick and the boken bicks wee discoveed duing excavations of buial it. Among the findings thee was fagment of ion thing in a fom of hook.
Burial #2 is situated at the southen-easten wall of mausoleum in 1,6m fom the fist buial. It is diected by the line Noth-West-South-East. Pedestal fo coffin of two aw bicks with sizes 26265 cm was established on the bottom of buial it at the lace of head and low at acoss the buial it. The buial was done in wooden coffin. Wooden at and beamТs fagments and also ion nails fo fastening of coffinТs cove ae being eseved.
The buied laid by his head to the Noth-West and tuned by his face to the South-West.
By the evious definition of anthoologist A.O.Ismagulova who took at in excavations, the skeleton fom the buial #2 belonged to a young gil at the age of 16-18 yeas old. In the aea of cevical at thee wee found beads, glass beads, things made of coal, endant in a fom of metal late.
Burial #2A was situated ove the buial #2. Its bottom was situated on the deth 40 cm fom the level of mausoleumТs floo. Thee wee boken ats of childТs tibias bone.
Burial #3 is obbed. The buial it was taeze fom in lan: length 2 m, width at the head Ц 0,75 m, at legs Ц 0,45 m, and deth Ц1,2 m. Bones of skull, finges, and ibbonТs ieces wee found duing excavations. The buial was done in a coffin made of thin boads.
The skeleton of buied was in olonged osition on his back. Thee wee absent following ats: skull, colla bones and some left side ibbons and bones of the left am. Thee wee no comlete ats of elvis bones and sacum. Thee wee not found also any nails fo coffinТs boads fastening.
Achaeological excavations defined that Koblandy mausoleum consisted of two ats: gukhana with buials and ziaatkhana. Gukhana occuied one thid at of inne mausoleumТs squae. Buials wee situated in the oosite side fom the entance. All fou buials ae efeed to diffeent times. Moeove the buials #2 and #3 wee done in gound buial it and the est ones #2 and #2A wee done in vaults made of aw bicks. The eseach of buials let to make following conclusions: mausoleum was built in Moslem style. But in the buial ceemony togethe with Islam ceemony took lace e Islam stee ceemonies what is oved by the buials in wooden coffins and the things found in the buials.
The buials ae dated by the XIIIЦXIVcc166.
Small Mausoleum of Zhaiyk town. Necoolis is situated in 2 km to the Noth-West fom Zhaiyk town. It is situated on Swistun Mountain which has in that lace the view of wide lateau with hills. Thee wee 5 such hills totally. Boken ats of bunt bicks wee found on its suface.
Excavations of one of such hills evealed the emains of two camea mausoleum fomed of bunt quadangula bicks and faced by olychomic glazed lates.
The walls and floos wee destoyed atially. The floos ae eseved only on the half of each emiseТs squae. It is seen obviously that like othe mausoleums it was taken off fo the eeated use of building mateials: bicks and facial lates.
The constuction was built without the base. Its ole is layed by thee layes of bicks lowe than the level of ancient day suface. Wall laye was done of bicks on the solution of СblackТ gound clay. The size of bick is 252625-265 cm and thee was used also the bick of half size.
Chapter IV The mausoleum looked fom outwad like the ectangula in sizes 912 m cowned by two cuolas. The south-westen wall was fomed in a shae of otal. Its thickness is 2,25 m and the thickness of the est walls of constuction is 1,75 m.
The entance in otal nicheТs cente was going to the emise #1 (5,53,5 m) what was ziaatkhana. Sufas in width 1,25 m and height about 0,4 m wee situated in the left and ight sides fom the entance along the easten and westen walls. The edges of sufas wee coveed by the quadangula bicks and inne sace was filled by black eath gound. Pobably its width and volume at the same time had been inceased at the exense of niche situated behind the sufas in the easten and westen walls. The floo of the emise in sizes 2,753,5 m was coveed by the quadangula bunt bicks ut on yellowish clay on lime solution.
The ass in cente of the noth-westen wall (the taces ae not obseved) led to gukhana (emise #2 in sizes 5,55,5 m) which was the buial vault itself. The middle at of bicks is 27 cm fom cone to cone. That aving was coveed by quadangula bicks. Along the southen, westen and easten walls was ut one ow of quadangula bicks and along the nothen one-fou ows. Pobably, fom one side thee was sufa installed in width 1,25 m. On the floo of emise #2 the bunt bicks wee ut in two layes. In the cut it was seen that on the gound was the laye of yellow clay in thickness 5-7 cm on which was the laye of black eath gound in thickness 7-10 cm. One ow of hexagonal bicks is ut on it.
The single buial in gukhana is situated almost in the cente in font of the sufa at the nothen wall. The buial it in sizes 2,551,15 m, in deth 1,6m is diected by its long axis to the East-West. The bick aving of floo is absent and in the filling of buial it was found the majoity of glazed lates and small bicks. The walls u to the bottom of buial it ae coveed by bicks. In the laye thee wee also the bicks of half size. The bicks in the buial it ae diffeent fom the bicks in wall laye and floo aving. The buial camea has inne sizes 2,00,7 m.
The buial was obbed comletely. The biggest at of bicks fom the laye of buial vault has been taken off. Skeleton was destoyed and thee wee discoveed only the skull, some long bones of edges and the at of elvis bones. The skull and some bones lay in the noth-westen cone of buial it, on the emains of boxТs walls. In the floo laye of buial vault thee wee discoveed ion tool, nails (16 cs.), bonze bells (2 cs.), small ion knife, cone shaed thing, obably, bell.
The evealed details of lan let to inteet esent achitectual constuction like facedcuola two-camea mausoleum.
Simila tye of mausoleums in Cental Asia was fomed to the second half of the XIV c., to the end of the XIV c. ceative seach of achitects in that diection of achitectue eached its culmination167.
One camea mausoleums ae moe chaacteistic fo Golden Hode memoial achitectue.
The ceemony of buial kike cos osition by its head to the noth-west, clothes, with esonal things, in wooden coffin on the bottom of buial it in bick buial vault coesonds to the buial ceemony of nomads, adoted Islam not long adv.168 Big Mausoleum of Zhaiyk Site. The single hill on Swistun-mountain which was not loughed is the highest hill whee was established once the tile oint.
Achaeological excavations unde two-mete thickness of debis, foming the hill, evealed achitectual emains of a УBig MausoleumФ.
Befoe excavations the hill had oval in lan fom, olonged by diection noth-south.
The sizes of hill ae 5037 m, the height above the suounding suface is 2,5 m. At the Memorial Architecture nothen end of hill to the east and the west wee situated symmetically two ound shaed in lan holes in diamete 10-15 m and deth 1,2-1,8 m.
Wide, once fenced ectangula in lan yad in sizes aoximately 5025-27 m was not evealed, comletely. It was situated fom the southen side and well eadable in mico elief.
Only the westen at of yad in length 17,3 m, thickness 1, and 9 m was cleaned out. The base of wall was fomed of quadangula bunt bicks (22226 cm) in height in two ows;
the ue at of wall was coveed by aw bicks in sizes 22226 cm and 40207 cm.The edges of walls wee coveed by bunt bicks and inne at was fomed of aw bicks. The aoximate distance between the easten-westen walls is 24 m.
Afte taking off the fist laye thee wee discoveed two massive aw bick wallseasten and westen. They ae diected fom the South to the Noth, it means along the long axis of hill, aallel and ae on distance 7 m fom each othe. Thei thickness is about 2,5 m.
Only the edges of walls ae coveed by aw bicks (40259-10 cm, 30258 cm) in two ows and inne sace is filled by debis (boken of aw and bunt bicks).
Fom the southen side on the deth 2,45 m unde the dense filling of bunt bicks by the diection West-East thee was evealed laye by the quadangula bunt bick. The width of laye is 2,5 m, length fom the east to the west is 16,5 m. Diffeent quantities of bick layes Ц fom 1 to 6 emained on the seaate sections. Outwad ows of layes ae fomed of accuately ut whole and half boken ieces of bicks. Fom the level of the thid laye of the laying, to the southen and south-westen sides fom that wall was cleaned aving of floo by the quadangula bunt bick going unde aw bick aallel walls (countefoceТs) and the southen edge of excavation. Stong olishing of bickТs suface boken ones oves, that it was aving of yad. The same aving was cleaned also fom the westen side of constuction and to the west fom the westen aw bick wall.
Wooden boads in thickness 15-18 cm wee installed along the southen outwad wall, on the westen and easten sections on the level of 4-5 bick layes. They wee installed in the laying to the ight and to the left side fom the ass, which is defined, most likely by stong olishing bickТs suface. The ass had the width aoximately 3,8-4 m obably, it was the width of not doo aetue itself, but the niche in the middle of which was the doo, leading to the fist emise of mausoleum. Finally thee was evealed the main (southen) faade of building with joint to it two aallel aw bick countefoceТs, thee was evealed and cleaned atially the level of joint fom the south and west wide fenced yad.
Premise #1 (4,44,4 m) is situated behind the otal, fom which was going doo aetue to the emise. To the ight and to the left side thee wee established two dee in all length of emise sufas (deth 2,2 m, height 0,45-0,5 m), inceasing its volume two times. The edges of sufas wee coveed by the quadangula bunt bicks. In the filling of sufa thee was black and gey eath gound and debis. In case suosition that sufas wee ove laed by aches, then the squae of emise #1 is inceasing two times and get the fom of the olonged ectangula in sizes 8,84,4 m, and above the quadangula at of emise, obably, thee was cuola ove laing. All middle at of emise #1 is occuied by cental sufa in a fom of sub bunt bicks ectangula latfom (2,752,2 m).
Its emained height is 0,34 (five layes of bunt bicks in the layes latfomТs edges). The edges of latfom ae ut by 2-3 ows of quadangula bicks; thee was filling inside by the eath gound and bick boken ieces. The floo of emise fom the both sides of latfom was coveed by blue glazed hexagonal lates. The width this laying fom the noth-easten side is 0,8 m fom the South-easten it is 0,3 m. Blue lates of aving ae Chapter IV olished stongly, cut and lost in some laces. The est squae of floo is aved by simle quadangula bunt bicks in sizes 23-2423-245 cm, which wee used also in laying of walls of all emise. Outwad, УfacialФ sides of walls wee ut by bicks of half size (11,5-12,524-255 cm), and in the laying of wallТs body thee wee bicks in sizes 20255 cm, 21255 cm.
Among eculiaities of constuction it is necessay to note, that the easten wall of building is thicke than the westen one: 2-2,1 m and 1,95 m consequently.
The wall in thickness 2,05 m seaates the emise #1 fom the quadangula #2169. As it was defined it was the main emise of mausoleum Ц УgukhanaФ (8,88,8 m). It was destoyed comletely so, that oven the floo aving bicks wee taken off. The emained of aving ove the existence of aving: eseved small sections of laye by quadangula bicks and the line along the southen wall, made of boken ieces of blue glazed lates.
УThe ostФ in sizes 0,650,65 m, in height 0,5 m made of bunt bicks was discoveed in font of the doo aetue to the emise #2 in 1 m inne line of southen wall. This УostФ can be inteeted like the base of wooden column. Moe ove it is situated exactly on the cental axis of mausoleum. But its location exactly in font of the entance and absence of the taces of the analogous to it ai ost at the nothen wall make us to efuse still fom such inteetation.
In the emise thee wee cleaned six adult and five buials. All buials ae diected by thei heads to the west. Thee was. Thee was obseved clea ositioning in location of buials: fou childТs buials wee located to the left side fom the entance at the westen wall, fou adultsТ at the easten wall and two ones by the cente of emise unde the latfom-mastaba.
Only one childТs buial aeaed at the easten wall of gukhana, in its noth-easten cone.
In the cente of nothen half of the emise #2, in 1,9-2 m fom the nothen wall emained the taces ectangula latfom-mastaba in sizes 3,02,8 m. It is not ossible to define now the height, but aaently, it was about 0,5 m, like the latfom in the emise #1.
Its edges wee ut by one ow of bunt bicks on ganch (lime) solution. Mastaba was destoyed comletely. The taces of south-easten and south-westen cones ae eseved well comaatively. The taces of simila in such cases buial constuctions not obseved because of the comlete destoy above othe buials of gukhana. Two buials (#1 and #5) unde that latfom ae also destoyed and obbed. Most likely, they ae cental ones and, aaently, the ealiest buials of all comlexes.
Fou adultТs buials Ц ## 2, 3, 6 and 7 ae situated along the easten wall of gukhana.
As it was noted above, the childenТs buials ##4, 8, 9 and 10 ae situated in ow along the westen wall and only childТs buial #11 was in the noth-easten cone of gukhana.
Burial #1 was done in the ectangula bick buial vault in sizes 2,10,76 m on the deth 0,86 m fom the level of floo. The height of the emained laying of walls of buial vault is 0,66 m, The floo of buial vault was built of the quadangula and ectangula bunt bicks. The buial vault was ove laed by quadangula and ectangula bicks. The buial was obbed and destoyed. Skeleton was situated in the neighboing aallel situated buial #5. Duing cleaning in the filling of the buial it thee wee found fagments of coloed alabaste lasteing, fagments of lates with gold ainting. On the bottom of buial vault at the easten and westen walls thee wee discoveed fagments of ion nails fom wooden coffin, two finges. The nails in sizes fom 10 to 13 cm length ae simila to the discoveed in the buial of УSmall mausoleumФ170.
Buial #2 is situated to the ight side fom the entance to the emise close to the easten wall. The size of buial it is 2,351,2 m, deth is 1,15 m along the long (nothen and Memorial Architecture southen) walls wee made the shouldes in width 20 cm, equied, obably, fo constuction of wooden o bick (in a fom of ach) ove laing. The taces of ove laing ae not foxed.
In the buial chink in width 0,8 m thee wee discoveed fagments of wooden coffin. Not destoyed skeleton of buied, ut on black, to the west by his head was cleaned. In the filling of buial it thee wee found fagments of aintings. Buial inventoy is absent.
Burial #3 is situated nea by aallel to the buial #2 Duing excavations on the deth 0,45 m thee was discoveed the obstuction of the quadangula bunt bicks, aaently, fom the boken ove la of buial vault. The buial was done in the ectangula gound it in sizes 2,41,34 m on the deth 1,1 m. The buial it along the along sizes has the shouldes in height 35 cm, in width u to 24 cm. On the shouldes emained the laying of the quadangula bunt bicks: six ows in height on the southen wall and not full thee ows on the nothen wall. The buial was obbed, location of bones of buied is destoyed. The buial inventoy is not eseved. Duing cleaning of the buial it thee wee discoveed the ieces of clothesТ fabic, boken ieces of glazed aintings. Along the nothen wall, nea the skull was eseved the fagment of boad fom wooden coffin, boken ieces of ion nails and fagment of fastening in a fom of late.
Burial #4 is situated to the left side fom the entance to the emise, close to the westen wall. The buial it on to, on the level of floo of gukhana is built by the quadangula bunt bicks. Afte the emoval of bick layes is seen clealy the buial sot in sizes 1,40,85 m.
in the nothen wall of buial it on. The deth 0,75 m was built the side hole in sizes 1,280,50,35 m. The buial was done is coffin. The skeleton was in a bad safety and it was diected by its head to the west. The hole was ove la by ow bicks (15 cs.) in sizes 40 - 4224 - 267- 9 cm, ut on ibbon. The buial inventoy is absent.
Burial #5 is situated aallel to the buial #1. The buial was done in the gound it (2,351,2 m) with shouldes on the deth 1 m, fom the level of floo. The floo and low at of buialТs wall ae not coveed by bicks. Highe by hel of the quadangula bunt bicks on shouldes, the walls of buials got the taeze shaed fom (by the fom of coffin): length is 1,9 m, width of westen wale is 0,75 m easten wall Ц 0,56 m, height is in fou ows of bicks. Fudging by the emains, the buial was ove la by false ach of the quadangula and ectangula bicks. The buial was destoyed and in the buial thee wee two skeletons (the second one, obably, aeaed thee fom the neighboing buial #1). Among the buial inventoy thee wee discoveed fagments of ion lates, five nails, ieces of wod. In filling of it thee wee found taeze fom the shaed glazed lates, obably, fom the felt ove la of buial vault.
Burial #6 is situated aallel to the buial #3. The buial was done in the buial it with shouldes along all fou sides. The walls of buial vault of taeze shaed fom wee built on the shouldes made the lates with tuquoise glaze of diffeent foms. The size of buial vault is following: length is 2,27 m, width of westen wall is 1 m, the easten wall is 80 cm.
The sides of buial hole ae coveed by ut ibbon glazed blue lates. In the buial vault thee was wooden coffin in length 1,8 m, height 0,3 m, and width at head is 0,54 m in legs Ц 0,25 m. The nothen at of ovela constuction was destoyed in the esult of obbey. The constuction was built by false ach by blue lates and coveed by the quadangula bunt bicks. The bones of ibbons, vetebas, ats of elvis wee discoveed the noth-easten cone of buial vault on the deth 0,2 m fom ovela. Among the buial inventoy thee wee emained ion nails (2 cs. length 8,5) fom coffin, fagments of shoes leathe of buied.
Duing the building of buial vault thee wee used the lates of taeze fom (12103 cm) and ectangula fom (22-22,520-22,53-4 cm).
Chapter IV Burial #7 Thee wee no constuctions inside the buial it in sizes 2,251,1 m and deth 0,8 with shouldes. Wooden coffin in length 2 m and width 0,55-0,4 m was established ight on the bottom of it. Skeleton in length 1,7 was inside the coffin in olonged osition on its bock; the skull was u wod by its face. Two golden wie shaed ea-ings in a fom of simle ings wee discoveed on scull.
Burial # 8 is situated aallel to the buial #4. The buial was done in the gound it in sizes 1,10,6 m. The low at of wall in thee ows was built by bunt bicks, fomed the buial vault. Ovela was destoyed duing obbey. On the deth 0,53 m wee discoveed fagments of wooden coffin with childТs skeleton of a bad safety. Duing excavations thee wee evealed fagments of lates with geometical and hebal onament. Buial inventoy is absent.
Burial #9 is situated aallel to the buial #8. The buial was done in the gound it in sizes 1,10,55 m on the deth 0,51 m. The bottom and walls of the buial it on height 0,3 m ae coveed was ut into the wooden coffin, fom which is eseved only wooden emains.
At the head of buied thee was situated the bunt bick of locale fom, ut on ibbon. Most likely, the buial vault was ovela bunt bicks of quadangula fom. In the filling thee wee found fagments of onamented lates in sizes 16,511,52 cm with ainting by gold.
The lates had taeze shaed fom with tuquoise glaze. Thee was no buial inventoy.
Burial #10 is situated nea by aallel to the buial #9. The buial was done in the gound it in sizes 1,40,8 m (outwad sizes) on the deth 0,5 m. Bottom and walls of buial it on height 0,25 m ae coveed by bunt bicks. The bones of skeleton ae of a bad safety.
In the filling of buial it thee wee found fagments of glazed lates with geometical and hebal onament, mono chomic lates of taeze fom with tuquoise glaze.
Burial #11 is situated in the noth-easten cone of gukhana, nea the buial #7. Duing excavation on the deth 0,2 m at the nothen wall thee wee discoveed two bunt bicks of tiangle fom. The buial was done in the gound it in sizes 1,30,7 m on the deth 0,8 m, with shouldes, in width 0,1 m along the long sides. The buied was in wooden coffin.
The bones of skeleton ae of a bad safety. Pieces of boadТs fagments of ion nails wee discoveed neaby. In the filling of buial it thee wee found the late of taeze fom with tuquoise glaze and fagments of ainted lasteing.
So, excavation of the emains of building constuction unde the Уhill with tig ointФ showed that thee in the XIV c. was built two-camea faade mausoleum of longitudinal Ц axis lanning. Bad safety of building constuctions because of intended destoy with the aim of the seconday use of building mateial171 does not to econstuct comletely of details the fom achitectual view of building. Data of achaeological excavations let to make econstuction. The main volume of constuction is esented by the ectangula aalleleied in sizes 12,8519,5 m. Two cuolas of diffeent sizes wee situated above them. Most likely, they wee situated above them. Most likely, wee tent shaed and they wee installed on to the coesonding dums and tansfe constuctions. Cuolas wee coveed by glazed lates of blue colo. The main (southen) faade of building was fomed in a fom of monumental otal with wide (about 4 m) cental entance ach niche. The otal obably, was built above the walls of othe facades. The easten and the westen edges of otal ae going out fo 2 m behind the line of side facades, go inceasing the geneal width of faade u to 17 m. The small towes, obably, wee built above that otubeance at the edges of the main faade.
The main faade and entance niche wee coveed by glazed lates, foming the onamental belts with hebal and geometical motives, made in white and blue and dak-blue-tuquoise colo shades. Aaently, the main, decoative ѕ-shaed belt, cicling to entance ach niche Memorial Architecture contained the devoting secial inscition by big white lettes on dak-blue backgound. On the side facades, aaently, dominated wam oche-ed colo of bick laye. In font of the main faade of mausoleum thee was situated the ectangula aved by quadangula bunt bicks and fenced by aw bick wall yad. The squae of yad is not cleaned yet comletely but we suose that thee also wee the buials.
The attactive in the inteio is high decoative anel of glazed dak blue lates with to bode with gold ainting on ue edges on cobalt- dak-blue backgound. Comehensively lasteed walls highe wee ainted by olychomic ainting of white backgound.
The fist emise layed the function of Уziaat-khanaФ o Уthilau-khanaФ in Khoesm172, was visitos ead the sacificial funeal suas of Koan and aeal of Allah. The emise, most likely, was ovela by cuola on high cylindical (o sides) dum.
The main emise, of mausoleum fo buials, УgukhanaФ was situated behind УziaatkhanaФ. On the main axis of gukhana thee was situated latfom-mastaba (above the buial), unde which wee two main buials of mausoleum. It is obvious, that mausoleum seved like family (clan) buial vault. The ight easten side of gukhana was intended mostly fo buials of adult eesentative of clan the left on was intended fo childТs buial. Total 11 buials wee discoveed and excavated thee. Thee is the base to suose, that all buials wee done in the eiod on functioning of mausoleum like family buial vault of eesentatives of the social-olitical elite of Zhaiyk at of the Golden Hode.
Mausoleum by its exessive achitectual foms dominated of the necoolis, situated on the to of Swistun-mountains, which in its tun was above Zhaiyk Rive and that at of banch whee wee situated the asses in the egion of cuent Melovaya mountains.
Mausoleum functioned athe-long time in some laces aving of floos was destoyed and olished. The cones of building left down and the walls began to the destoyed unde essue of heavy constuctions, esecially on the southen faade. The secial measues wee taken fo stengthening of building constuctions: to the bases of walls thee wee installed thick wooden beams: the southen faade wall, the most loaded, was suoted by two stong aw bick contofoces-bases.
By its achitectual tye esented mausoleum can be eveed to the faade two camea mausoleums of longitudinal-axis lanning, as the base behind the faade line of otaleshtak is not fixed173. That tye of the memoial constuctions was not noted ealie in Volga and Noth-Caucasian egions of Golden Hode.
Findings of gukhana of a УBig MausoleumФ eflect comletely the vaiety of the tyes of buial constuctions of town necoolis of Golden Hode eoch in the Euasian stees174.
Classification and analyses of buials on the necoolis of Golden Hode towns (Volga egion, Noth Caucasus, Cimea) wee done by L.T.Yablonsky. Taking into account stong souce base of the eseach (moe than 500 buials) and that it was not widened duing the fallowing tens of yeas, what could bought to econsideing of the esults of the classification, it can be consideed actual cuently175. L.T.Yablonsky, using athe tied method of the statistic ocessing of mass mateial of G.A.Fyodoov-Davydov, evealed 18 stable tyes of buial ceemony. We conside it necessay to note, that the new mateials of necoolis of Zhaiyk site can intoduce coections into some main conclusions, not touching the bases (featues), by which was caied out classification and used teminology.
Regettably, level of safety of buials inside the УBig MausoleumФ does not let to fix such essential elements of buial constuctions, like esence o absence and the fom of Уove buialsФ (only the destoyed mastaba above the cental buials #1 and #5 is fixed clealy) and in the majoity of cases the fom of buial ovela. Among clealy fixed Chapter IV featues excet the geneal westen diection of buials we can note esence of thee main kinds of buial itТs fom: 1) simle ectangula; 2) with shouldes; 3) with side hole.
The vaiants inside the buial constuctions ae also vaious. On the bottom of simle it usually thee was fomed buial vault of bunt bicks of taeze shaed fom in lan (buials ##1, 5, 3, 8, 9, 10).
Mausoleum Auliekol. Taditional winte astues and winte cams of Kazakh kystau in the noth-easten Kazakhstan wee situated in of Itysh Rive and on the left bank in the mountains Kalmak-Kygan, Kyzyltau, Kaakaaly and Byantau. The biggest summe astues-zhailau was situated in valleys on Olenty and Shidety Rives.
Low ats of Shidety and Olenty Rives, wee in summe eiod was concentated the biggest at of the nomadic oulation wee called by eole, like Zhailma. The southen at of this egion in the system of Akkol lakes is the ichest by its astues and wate souces Ц Akkol Zhailma176. In such context location of the eseached monument nea the lakes Auliekol, in the cente of Akkol Zhailma is not occasional, but stiulated by the economical activity of the nomadic oulation, which lived unde close to the moden natual-climatic conditions. It is necessay to note, that excet Auliekol in the egion of the
taditional summe nomadic astues thee ae also othe monuments of the XIVЦXV cc.:
in the valleys of Selety Rive thee wee investigated the emains of mausoleums and town in canyons Motyk, Bainiyaz, Kyzyloba, and also on the ight bank of Shidety Rive, in Zhantai Canyon177.
The stee aistocacy aleady adoted Islam, which as it is known got the status of the state eligion in the XIV c. in Ulus Djuchi.
At the time was also widely sead the tadition to build mausoleums Ц kumbezes of bunt bicks on the buials of the ominent and honoed eligions and state esons178.
The state centes of medieval oulation of the stee zone, diffeing fom the southen egions of Kazakhstan did not have often stong fotess constuctions and many othe attibutes of classic Cental-Asian town. They wee adated to eculiaities of the economical activity, which was limited in the nothen lain stees mostly by summe eiod. We can note like of the stee medieval headquate Ц oda and mausoleums the medieval settlement, identified with the known by witten souces town Oda-Baza179.
The eseached object is situated to the south-east fom the village Kaazha, in the canyon Kaaoba, which is washed out fom the west by Olenty Rive and Auliekol Lake fom the south. On the to of the emains in the cente of old cemetey of Kanzhigaly clan thee ae situated the emains of seveal bick constuctions in a fom of a hill, ich by boken bunt bicks, boken of glazed lates, ieces of time solvents. On the biggest objects thee ae seen the taces of old obbes and amateu excavations was in a fom of tenches and its, coveed by gass. Excavation in squae 750 sq. m was established in one of the hills in diamete 30 m, height 1,48 m in cental at of cemetey. Thee wee evealed the emains of constuction made of bunt bicks and aw bicks, which has in lan the ectangula fom in sizes 1912 m and it is diected to the southen side by its entance et. Peseved bases of walls in thickness 1 m wee fomed of 3 ows of the quadangula aw bicks in size 25256 cm on clay solution and they wee coveed outside in one ow by bunt bick in sizes 25255 cm.
Duing excavation of uins thee ae found fagments of ceamics, facing, and also a big quantity of fagments and whole ieces of decoative lates, which decoated the walls of buildings, bones of animals and fish.
Memorial Architecture Entance to the constuction was situated fom the southen side. Two ows of bunt bicks wee excavated in cental at in ass. Concentation of hose skulls, diected to the south was found duing cleaning of south-westen cone fom the left side fom the entance, inside the building in the cente of constuction thee was situated the emise of octagonal fom in sizes 6,56,5 m. Its walls of bunt bicks ae esented on height 0,8-1 m, thickness of walls is 1,25 m. Emty sace between the emise and the main outwad aw bick wall of building was filled by clay, ieces of boken aw bicks and by a big quantity of bunt bicks and gladТs fom ovens.
Pemise 2 (2,752,75 m) made of bunt bicks joint fom the noth to the fist emise.
Bick wall, dividing both emises is on height 0,4 m but thee was not obseved doo aetue.
Buials, which wee done on the level of floo and in gound it, wee found duing cleaning of obstuctions inside the emise.
Burial #1 Buial in wooden coffin made of wide boads was found on the time level of floo. Deceased was in olonged osition on back and diected by head to the west Bones of skeleton wee in anatomical ode, at the exclusion of skull, which was, obably, elaced in the latest time duing disassembling of constuction, as the at of bick wall nea the head was disassembled u to the base. Round shaed wooden subject though hole in the middle, which looked like a big bead, was found duing cleaning to the left side fom the ight leg, lowe than knee.
Burial #2 it is situated in cental at of emise. Buial was done in coffin, made of boads, on the level of floo and is diected by the line west-east. The low at of emise was situated above the ealiest gound gave and, obably, in the esult of goundТs going down it was situated a little lowe, than the head of the bed.
Skeleton of the deceased was ut on back, in olonged osition, to the west by its head. Bones of low at wee destoyed and elaced to the side of elvis. Pat of ibbons and bones of am wee situated also not in anatomical ode. Remains of clothes in a fom of fagments of leathe and fabic of ed and geen colos wee found on the bones of skeleton duing the ocess of cleaning. Small ion knife with the distinguished handle was found.
Burial #3. It was done in gound it of sub oval fom, diected to the west-east. Southwesten section of buial was ovela by the buial 2 to which was, aaently, the latest one in comaison with buial 3.
Remains of above buial ovela in a fom of wooden boads in 10 cm ut acoss. Inne buial ovela made of bich small ut acoss, laced in thei tun on longitudinal long bich boads wee evealed on the deth 0,9 m. Diectly unde the ovela thee wee excavated the emains of wooden boad coffin, whee was laced the skeleton on back, to the nothwest by his head.
In the ocess of cleaning of skeleton, to the left side fom the skull thee was found the bead of conelian and unde the skull. Thee wee discoveed the emains of fabic sewn by golden theads. Two eye-shaed beads wee discoveed lowe, than the knee of ight leg, fom inne side and fagment of thin fabic of geen colo was found in the aea of ankle.
Buials in the second emise wee done by Moslem tadition with elements of e Islam buial ituals, what is chaacteistic fo the buials of the XIVЦXVI cc.
Featues of Islam ae seen in the westen oientation, esence of wooden oientation, esence of wooden coffin, almost comlete absence of buial inventoy, absence the sacificial food and buial funeal feast, cult of fie and othe featues. Suvivals of the taditional believe ae fixed in osition of head of the dead, esence of the clothТs emains, adonments, household subjects in a fom of knife. Exessions of elements of e Islam Chapter IV believes ae demonstated by alta of hoseТs heads and ictue of fish on the decoative bick. The exclusively imotant ole of hose in the cult activity of local oulation is oved by the buials of the evious Kimak-Kichak eiod.
At that eiod among the nomads of Itysh Rive egion thee existed cult of fish, what is oved by findings of ictues of fish in the buials of the late I Ц ealy II millennium.
Pictue of fish on bick fom Auliekol could be eminiscence of that ancient cult, as fishing was acted in the economical activity.
Ceamics, found on the suface and in excavations is widely found on the monuments of Golden Hode time and it is esented by fagments of ed clay dish, made by hands on otteТs wheel. Onamentation of dish consists of hoizontal wave shaed and staight lines made on aw clay. The inteesting among ceamic findings ae boken ieces of vessels Ц chiags, which wee used in wate aising devices, fagments of jag shaed vessels and khums.
Silve coin of Uzbek-khan, issued in 1323 y. in Bulga-al-Makhus was found in one of the buials nea the mausoleum.
The emains of mausoleum and dwellings on it ae not discoveed yet, but judging by ceamics and emains of chigi wate aising devices, but thee wee settlements and dwellings. What in concening the mausoleum, it is dated by the XIV c., but the buials continued to be done in the XVЦXVI c.
So, on the base of the available data, we can suose that teitoy of Akkol Zhailma, which was one of the cultual-olitical centes of nomads in noth-east of Say-Aka in the eoch of Golden Hode, ket its meaning also in the Kazakh-Nogaily time180.
Mausoleums of Bozok site.
Bozok site is situated on the southen bode of Astana town among the moasses of the left flood lands of the Ishim Rive. The squae of a monument is 30 hectaes. Excavations of monument ae being caied out since 1999 yea.
Pesent time mateial dates the aeaance of Bozok site by the Ancient Tukic Eoch.
The monument existed duing the long eiod fom the VIIЦVIII cc., obably, till the XVIЦ XVII cc. Thee eiods can be defined in the histoy of site like follows: 1) VIIЦVIII (IX cc.);
2) XЦXIII cc.; 3) XIVЦXVI (XVII) cc.
Five mausoleums have been eseached on the teitoy of Bozok site. Thee of them ae made of bunt bicks and two mausoleums ae made of aw bicks.
Two mausoleums (#1, 2) wee evealed in the cental at of monument.
Mausoleum #1 is diected to the sides of Univese. The sizes ae 6,6x6,6 m. The walls ae fomed by the quadangula bicks in thee ows. The width of walls is 0,88 m. The bicks have the sizes 2526,55,5 cm, 2626,56 cm. The floo of mausoleum is coveed by quadangula bunt bicks. Clay filling in thickness 5-7 cm was unde the bicks of floo.
Whole bicks and its fagments with caved onament and fagments of the ceamic to of mausoleum-kubba wee discoveed along the southen and westen ats of excavation of mausoleum.
Onament on the ectangula facial bicks in sizes 303015 cm is esented by two kinds of ictues made by dee caving. Caved bick has the УkeyФ to assembling on the suface-half of eight-ay sta foming the comlete figue unde the coect lacing of
bicks. Anothe motive of onament is seen on fagments of the ectangula bicks in sizes:
21165 cm and 16155 cm.On one of them thee ae esented five ows of tiangles diected to one side (in a fom of galands), on anothe one-thee ows.
Memorial Architecture Two buial its with the emains of thee buials wee cleaned inside the mausoleum.
But the its ae diected by the line West-East. It is clea by the statigahy that mausoleum was intended fo the buial it #9 destoyed late by the buial #10. Buial it #9 contained the buial of adult man. Thee ion edges of aows wee found duing cleaning of a it. One ion ing, obably, fom a bit was discoveed thee too.
The buial on to was ovelaed by the bicks of floo. Afte some time the buial was oened in the south-westen at. Bones of a skeleton ae boken and some of them have the taces of fie and the at of bones was thown away.
The buial in sizes 1,30,3 m was discoveed nea by. The body of the deceased was diected by head to the west and by face it was tuned to the south (#10).Thee shee astagals laid at the head side. Fagments of ceamic to at of mausoleum-kubba coveed by dak geen and bight blue dense glaze and also the boken bones of the deceased wee found in a filling.
But it #11 is situated in 20 cm to the south of buial #10.This buial is the latest in mausoleum. Fo its building wee evealed o cut the bicks of floo. The buial had taeze fom in sizes 2,50,70,8 m. The buial of old man with head tuned to the west and face tuned to the south was cleaned on the bottom. Ovelaing was fomed of two bicks ut inclined and one bick ut between them in hoizontal osition.
Concentation of caved bicks fom the southen side of mausoleum let to suose the entance in the southen wall.
The date of mausoleum is defined by ion aow edges. Two lain half edges have hombus shaed fom of feathe. One edge it is fou sided half shaed in a fom of lance feathe fom. Such tye of edges is dated by the XIIIЦXIV cc.
Mausoleum #2 is situated in 6 metes to the west of mausoleum #1 with at of walls eseved.